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Künstliche Intelligenz 29(3) - August 2015

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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Special Issue on Higher-Level Cognition and Computation
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 29, No. 3, 2015) Ragni, Marco; Stolzenburg, Frieder
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    To Make the World a Better Place
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 29, No. 3, 2015) Ragni, Marco
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    The RatioLog Project: Rational Extensions of Logical Reasoning
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 29, No. 3, 2015) Furbach, Ulrich; Schon, Claudia; Stolzenburg, Frieder; Weis, Karl-Heinz; Wirth, Claus-Peter
    Higher-level cognition includes logical reasoning and the ability of question answering with common sense. The RatioLog project addresses the problem of rational reasoning in deep question answering by methods from automated deduction and cognitive computing. In a first phase, we combine techniques from information retrieval and machine learning to find appropriate answer candidates from the huge amount of text in the German version of the free encyclopedia “Wikipedia”. In a second phase, an automated theorem prover tries to verify the answer candidates on the basis of their logical representations. In a third phase—because the knowledge may be incomplete and inconsistent—we consider extensions of logical reasoning to improve the results. In this context, we work toward the application of techniques from human reasoning: We employ defeasible reasoning to compare the answers w.r.t. specificity, deontic logic, normative reasoning, and model construction. Moreover, we use integrated case-based reasoning and machine learning techniques on the basis of the semantic structure of the questions and answer candidates to learn giving the right answers.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    The Pleasure will be Always on Our Side
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 29, No. 3, 2015) Ragni, Marco; Becker-Asano, Christian
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Can Machine Intelligence be Measured in the Same Way as Human intelligence?
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 29, No. 3, 2015) Besold, Tarek; Hernández-Orallo, José; Schmid, Ute
    In recent years the number of research projects on computer programs solving human intelligence problems in artificial intelligence (AI), artificial general intelligence, as well as in Cognitive Modelling, has significantly grown. One reason could be the interest of such problems as benchmarks for AI algorithms. Another, more fundamental, motivation behind this area of research might be the (implicit) assumption that a computer program that successfully can solve human intelligence problems has human-level intelligence and vice versa. This paper analyses this assumption.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Extending and Completing Probabilistic Knowledge and Beliefs Without Bias
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 29, No. 3, 2015) Beierle, Christoph; Kern-Isberner, Gabriele; Finthammer, Marc; Potyka, Nico
    Combining logic with probability theory provides a solid ground for the representation of and the reasoning with uncertain knowledge. Given a set of probabilistic conditionals like “If A then B with probability x”, a crucial question is how to extend this explicit knowledge, thereby avoiding any unnecessary bias. The connection between such probabilistic reasoning and commonsense reasoning has been elaborated especially by Jeff Paris, advocating the principle of Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt). In this paper, we address the general concepts and ideas underlying MaxEnt and leading to it, illustrate the use of MaxEnt by reporting on an example application from the medical domain, and give a brief survey on recent approaches to extending the MaxEnt principle to first-order logic.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Qualitative and Semi-Quantitative Inductive Reasoning with Conditionals
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 29, No. 3, 2015) Eichhorn, Christian; Kern-Isberner, Gabriele
    Conditionals like “birds fly—if bird then fly” are crucial for commonsense reasoning. In this technical project report we show that conditional logics provide a powerful formal framework that helps understanding if-then sentences in a way that is much closer to human reasoning than classical logic and allows for high-quality reasoning methods. We describe methods that inductively generate models from conditional knowledge bases. For this, we use both qualitative (like preferential models) and semi-quantitative (like Spohn’s ranking functions) semantics. We show similarities and differences between the resulting inference relations with respect to formal properties. We further report on two graphical methods on top of the ranking approaches which allow to decompose the models into smaller, more feasible components and allow for local inferences.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    On the Consistency of Approximate Multi-agent Probability Theory
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 29, No. 3, 2015) Madsen, Mathias Winther
    Bayesian models have proven to accurately predict many aspects of human cognition, but they generally lack the resources to describe higher-order reasoning about other people’s knowledge. Recently, a number of suggestions have thus been made as to how these social aspects of cognition might be codified in computational reasoning systems. This paper examines one particularly ambitious attempt by Andreas Stuhlmüller and Noah Goodman, which was implemented in the stochastic programming language Church. This paper translates their proposal into a more conventional probabilistic language, comparing it to an alternative system which models subjective probabilities as random variables. Having spelled out their ideas in these more familiar and intuitive terms, I argue that the approximate reasoning methods used in their system have certain statistical consistency problems.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 29, No. 3, 2015)
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    You Need the AI Community—and the AI Community Needs You!
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 29, No. 3, 2015) Schmid, Ute