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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Ethical, Legal & Participatory Concerns in the Development of Human-Robot Interaction - Lessons from Eight Research Projects with Social Robots in Real-World Scenarios
    (i-com: Vol. 21, No. 2, 2022) Carros, Felix; Störzinger, Tobias; Wierling, Anne; Preussner, Adrian; Tolmie, Peter
    Research on Human-Robot Interaction is increasing as system become widely available and reached a level that enables smooth interactions. Yet, many research projects act in a silo mentality, in regard of participatory, ethical, or legal matters of social robotics. Knowledge about specific challenges is not universal and has often to be transferred from non-robotic contexts. We present findings in the three dimensions: participatory design, ethics for social robots and legal aspects. We accompanied eight research projects on social robots in real-world scenarios for three years. During that time, we spoke, observed, and helped (where possible) the research projects. This gave us specific insights into their work. Our findings work in three dimensions. In participatory design we observed that the trust relationship to users is essential to gain truthful insights and that a mixed method approach is promising. Regarding ethical aspects, we could see that ethical matters should be answered early on. And in the legal dimensions we noticed that the GDPR regulations are a challenge that often requires the help of experts. This work is reflecting on the observation of eight projects and is collecting lessons learned to help future projects and to learn from previous work.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Collaborative Speculations on Future Themes for Participatory Design in Germany
    (i-com: Vol. 21, No. 2, 2022) Mucha, Henrik; Correia de Barros, Ana; Benjamin, Jesse Josua; Benzmüller, Christoph; Bischof, Andreas; Buchmüller, Sandra; de Carvalho, Alexandra; Dhungel, Anna-Katharina; Draude, Claude; Fleck, Marc-Julian; Jarke, Juliane; Klein, Stefanie; Kortekaas, Caroline; Kurze, Albrecht; Linke, Diane; Maas, Franzisca; Marsden, Nicola; Melo, Ricardo; Michel, Susanne; Müller-Birn, Claudia; Pröbster, Monika; Rießenberger, Katja Antonia; Schäfer, Mirko Tobias; Sörries, Peter; Stilke, Julia; Volkmann, Torben; Weibert, Anne; Weinhold, Wilhelm; Wolf, Sara; Zorn, Isabel; Heidt, Michael; Berger, Arne
    Participatory Design means recognizing that those who will be affected by a future technology should have an active say in its creation. Yet, despite continuous interest in involving people as future users and consumers into designing novel and innovative future technology, participatory approaches in technology design remain relatively underdeveloped in the German HCI community. This article brings together the diversity of voices, domains, perspectives, approaches, and methods that collectively shape Participatory Design in Germany. In the following, we (1) outline our understanding of participatory practice and how it is different from mere user involvement; (2) reflect current issues of participatory and fair technology design within the German Participatory Design community; and (3) discuss tensions relevant to the field, that we expect to arise in the future, and which we derived from our 2021 workshop through a speculative method. We contribute an introduction and an overview of current themes and a speculative outlook on future issues of Participatory Design in Germany. It is meant to inform, provoke, inspire and, ultimately, invite participation within the wider Computer Science community.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Evaluation of Priority-Dependent Notifications for Smart Glasses Based on Peripheral Visual Cues
    (i-com: Vol. 21, No. 2, 2022) Faulhaber, Anja K.; Hoppe, Moritz; Schmidt, Ludger
    Smart glasses are increasingly commercialized and may replace or at least complement smartphones someday. Common smartphone features, such as notifications, should then also be available for smart glasses. However, notifications are of disruptive character given that even unimportant notifications frequently interrupt users performing a primary task. This often leads to distractions and performance degradation. Thus, we propose a concept for displaying notifications in the peripheral field of view of smart glasses and with different visualizations depending on the priority of the notification. We developed three icon-based notifications representing increasing priority: a transparent green icon continuously becoming more opaque (low priority), a yellow icon moving up and down (medium priority), and a red and yellow flashing icon (high priority). To evaluate the concept, we conducted a study with 24 participants who performed a primary task and should react to notifications at the same time using the Nreal Light smart glasses. The results showed that reaction times for the low-priority notification were significantly higher and it was ranked as the least distracting. The medium- and high-priority notifications did not show a clear difference in noticeability, distraction, or workload. We discuss implications of our results for the perception and visualization of notifications in the peripheral field of view of smart glasses and, more generally, for augmented reality applications.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Evaluation of Mixed Reality Support for Bridge Inspectors Using BIM Data - Digital Prototype for a Manual Task with a Long-Lasting Tradition
    (i-com: Vol. 21, No. 2, 2022) Riedlinger, Urs; Klein, Florian; Hill, Marcos; Lambracht, Christian; Nieborowski, Sonja; Holst, Ralph; Bahlau, Sascha; Oppermann, Leif
    Bridge inspectors work for the safety of our infrastructure and mobility. In regular intervals, they conduct structural inspections – a manual task with a long-lasting and firmly normed analogue tradition. In our collaborative research project, we developed Mixed Reality (MR) and Virtual Reality (VR) prototypes to support that work digitally. We propose a mixed analogue and digital workflow using Building Information Modeling (BIM) data that can be ready-to-hand for bridge inspectors during their work on-site at a bridge. In this paper, we describe the system and the evaluation results of our final MR demonstrator at a autobahn-bridge in Germany. We identified a need for a digital MR tool to support the bridge inspection in-situ. In general, this matches with the trend to bring the computer-supported office-work out into the real world. However, there are also challenges to consider, like lacking BIM data for existing bridges and structures, appropriate user-interfaces in this new application domain, or the need to adopt norms and guidelines for public tender. We argue to consider a user-centered design approach for future developments to best profit from the bridge inspectors’, as well as the MR- and CSCW-researchers expertise, and ultimately increase the acceptance of the developed information systems.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Evaluating Virtual Reality Simulations for Construction Safety Training - A User Study Exploring Learning Effects, Usability and User Experience
    (i-com: Vol. 21, No. 2, 2022) Jelonek, Markus; Fiala, Eileen; Herrmann, Thomas; Teizer, Jochen; Embers, Stephan; König, Markus; Mathis, Arno
    The construction industry is one of the sectors with the highest accident rates. To prevent accidents, construction workers receive occupational safety training and safety instructions. However, experience-based learning of dangerous situations is hardly possible or justifiable in reality. Virtual reality (VR) simulations can be a potential solution in this regard by allowing workers to experience dangerous situations in a very vivid but safe way without being exposed to real hazards. In this study, a VR simulation for construction safety training was developed and tested with trainees that learn the safe operation of hand-operated power tools. In this particular case study, the objective for the participants in the VR simulation was to successfully consider all safety aspects in the operation of an angle grinder. The usability, user experience and implicit learning were investigated during the study. Additionally, we conducted post-play interviews with participants. Results found learning effects of participants as well as a satisfying user experience and usability. The results also show that participants might learn content as presented, risking the learning of false information if the simulation does not cover relevant safety aspects.
  • Textdokument
    Special Issue on Mobile and Wearable Interaction
    (i-com: Vol. 21, No. 2, 2022) Rohs, Michael; Echtler, Florian
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    EnvironZen: Immersive Soundscapes via Augmented Footstep Sounds in Urban Areas
    (i-com: Vol. 21, No. 2, 2022) Schrapel, Maximilian; Happe, Janko; Rohs, Michael
    Urban environments are often characterized by loud and annoying sounds. Noise-cancelling headphones can suppress negative influences and superimpose the acoustic environment with audio-augmented realities (AAR). So far, AAR exhibited limited interactivity, e. g., being influenced by the location of the listener. In this paper we explore the superimposition of synchronized, augmented footstep sounds in urban AAR environments with noise-cancelling headphones. In an online survey, participants rated different soundscapes and sound augmentations. This served as a basis for selecting and designing soundscapes and augmentations for a subsequent in-situ field study in an urban environment with 16 participants. We found that the synchronous footstep feedback of our application EnvironZen contributes to creating a relaxing and immersive soundscape. Furthermore, we found that slightly delaying footstep feedback can be used to slow down walking and that particular footstep sounds can serve as intuitive navigation cues.