Wirtschaftsinformatik 45(3) - Juni 2003

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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Das ökonomische kalkül eines anbieters von mediendateien bei filesharing-diensten
    (Wirtschaftsinformatik: Vol. 45, No. 3, 2003) Becker, Jan U.; Clement, Michel
    Filesharing has recently proved to be one of the most controversial applications in the Internet. Millions of users enjoy downloads of billions of media files such as songs or movies. But where do these files come from? While the economic rationale to download files is obvious, the rationale of individuals to actually share and therefore internalize the costs (i.e. the risk of being sued for copyright infringement) is not obvious. Consequently empirical studies have shown a large proportion of users not offering any but demanding files and therefore freeride on their peers.Nevertheless sharing can be rational. This article offers a theoretical base to explain sharing and proves that the users’ utility considerations depend heavily on the networks life cycle. The user’s utility of sharing decreases over time. In order to prevent the (theoretically) inevitable break-down of the filesharing network, the authors present strategies for filesharing networks to enhance the user’s willingness to share.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Peer-to-peer-netzwerke für das ressourcenmanagement
    (Wirtschaftsinformatik: Vol. 45, No. 3, 2003) Schoder, Detlef; Fischbach, Kai
    This survey reviews key concepts of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networking. The management of resources such as bandwidth, storage, information, files and CPU cycles based on P2P networks are highlighted. A model differentiating P2P infrastructures, P2P applications and P2P communities is introduced, which provides a better understanding of different perspectives of P2P. Core technical and social challenges are discussed which still limit the potentials of information systems based on P2P architectures.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Webservices zur integration interaktiver elektronischer verhandlungen in elektronische marktplätze
    (Wirtschaftsinformatik: Vol. 45, No. 3, 2003) Rebstock, Michael; Lipp, Michael
    We analyze and develop web services for the integration of spontaneous interactive bilateral multi-attribute electronic negotiations into electronic marketplaces. Conceptual and technical foundations of electronic markets and electronic negotiations, of web services and of RDF are discussed. The overall architectural design of the negotiation application and of the underlying transaction scenario is described. The information flow between the services is explained and their functionalities, as well as the documents exchanged, are developed. Finally, our results and related work are discussed and an outlook is given.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    MoneyBee: Aktienkursprognose mit künstlicher intelligenz bei hoher rechenleistung
    (Wirtschaftsinformatik: Vol. 45, No. 3, 2003) Bohn, Andreas; Güting, Thomas; Mansmann, Till; Selle, Stefan
    The company i42 GmbH, Mannheim, developed MoneyBee: a system to predict stock market values, basing on artificial intelligence (neural networks), distributed computing and different applications to optimize the input- and output-data (e.g. genetic algorithms, statistical methods). More than 200 values (especially from German stock market) are observed by this system continuously, with daily updated predictions. The information technology product is an innovation — not by its basic technology, but by its cooperation of different program groups on high level.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Resource allocation in peer-to-peer networks
    (Wirtschaftsinformatik: Vol. 45, No. 3, 2003) Grothoff, Christian
    Resource allocation in peer-to-peer networks — An excess-based economic model This paper describes economic aspects of GNUnet, a peer-to-peer framework for anonymous distributed file-sharing. GNUnet is decentralized; all nodes are equal peers. In particular, there are no trusted entities in the network. This paper describes an economic model to perform resource allocation and defend against malicious participants in this context. The approach presented does not use credentials or payments; rather, it is based on trust. The design is much like that of a cooperative game in which peers take the role of players. Nodes must cooperate to achieve individual goals. In such a scenario, it is important to be able to distinguish between nodes exhibiting friendly behavior and those exhibiting malicious behavior. GNUnet aims to provide anonymity for its users. Its design makes it hard to link a transaction to the node where it originated from. While anonymity requirements make a global view of the end-points of a transaction infeasible, the local link-to-link messages can be fully authenticated. Our economic model is based entirely on this local view of the network and takes only local decisions.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Internetquellen zu peer-to-peer-systemen
    (Wirtschaftsinformatik: Vol. 45, No. 3, 2003) Grasmugg, Stefan; Schmitt, Christian; Veit, Daniel
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Workflow-Interoperabilität über das internet
    (Wirtschaftsinformatik: Vol. 45, No. 3, 2003) Weber, Rainer
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Interview mit axel barten zu
    (Wirtschaftsinformatik: Vol. 45, No. 3, 2003) Barten, Axel
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Fault-tolerant data management in the gaston peer-to-peer file system
    (Wirtschaftsinformatik: Vol. 45, No. 3, 2003) Dynda, Vladimír; Rydlo, Pavel
    Gaston is a peer-to-peer large-scale file system designed to provide a fault-tolerant and highly available file service for a virtually unlimited number of users. Data management in Gaston disseminates and stores replicas of files on multiple machines to achieve the requested level of data availability and uses a dynamic tree-topology structure to connect replication schema members. We present generic algorithms for replication schema creation and maintenance according to file user requirements and autonomous constraints that are set on individual nodes. We also show specific data object structure as well as mechanisms for secure and efficient update propagation among replicas with data consistency control. Finally, we introduce a scalable and efficient technique improving fault-tolerance of the tree-topology structure connecting replicas.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Praxiserfahrungen bei der Einführung dezentraler Wissensmanagement-Lösungen
    (Wirtschaftsinformatik: Vol. 45, No. 3, 2003) Schmücker, Jörg; Müller, Wolfgang
    Efficient management of knowledge is a major success factor for corporations and organizations. Many corporations have started Knowledge Management initiatives with the goal to actively manage knowledge creation and flow. Apart from the necessary organizational changes they have tried to support the quest for knowledge with Knowledge-Management systems. Peer-to-peer systems offer a cost-efficient, user-friendly alternative to server-based knowledge management solutions. However, due to various reasons they have not gained significant market share. During our sales activities for Dinow, our distributed knowledge management system, we have encountered various reasons for the slow adoption of this promising technology. In addition to technological concerns, e.g. regarding security, we have found that psychological factors are very significant: the possibility of “free” information flow contradicts the rigid frameworks, policies, and procedures in most organizations. It is a common misconception that currently used technology, i.e. e-mail, protects against such unwanted information flow.