- KonferenzbeitragThe Italian Survey on ICT in Environmental and Sustainability Research within ICT-ENSURE: Experiences and Lessons Learned(Integration of Environmental Information in Europe, 2010) Carrara, Paola; Greve, Klaus; Cremers, Armin B.Within the Project ICT-ENSURE, the survey of Italian programmes and projects regarding ICT in environmental and sustainability research was coordinated by the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) of the National Research Council (CNR), making research activities focused on the development and testing of methodologies and techniques for observing and monitoring the environment and its changes. Participation in ICTENSURE allowed reviewing the state-of-the-art in research programmes and projects about ICT for environmental and sustainability in Italy, a field where the main funding resources in the sector come from the European Commission. The main role in Italy is played by some Ministries, regional programmes and foundations but a specific focus on this subject is missing. Nevertheless, many projects are performed by Italian bodies: from the review made within ICT-ENSURE, we found that they are mainly addressed (limited) to (wireless) monitoring and communication systems, to (geo-)web sites and decision support systems. This contribution is aimed at describing the work done within the survey and to provide some critical comments with respect to the present situation in Italy and the future perspectives and risks.
- KonferenzbeitragEnhancing Sustainability of the Software Live Cycle via a Generic Knowledge Base(Integration of Environmental Information in Europe, 2010) Fischer, Julia; Naumann, Stefan; Dick, Markus; Greve, Klaus; Cremers, Armin B.Information technology plays a double-edged part when facing the challenges of sustainable development: On the one hand IT can improve processes, dematerialize physical goods, etc. On the other hand, IT itself is consuming more and more energy and natural resources. In our paper, we present an approach for a generic knowledge database, which helps software developers, managers of data centres, users, and other actors within the hardware and software life cycle in producing, maintaining, and using more sustainable and “greener” software. In detail, we present a model for appropriate articles, and overall system architecture. With some user scenarios we demonstrate, how our system is working.
- KonferenzbeitragDrowning in Geospatial Point Data: A Pattern Based Approach(Integration of Environmental Information in Europe, 2010) Waldvogel , Bettina; Wotruba, Lukas; Müller, Kalin; Bischof, Sandro; Greve, Klaus; Cremers, Armin B.Collecting, storing and archiving data are well understood processes. However, it is not trivial do decide, in which form and how much of the data should be presented to the user. More is not always better. The purpose of this contribution is to present a new way to focus on the basic need for simple answers to simple queries. In this paper three query-patterns are described, which help to reduce the information flood and enhance the usability. The amounts of point data we talk about are rather large for geo-data processing, in particular they are very large in terms of human perception. It is found that the presented patterns can reduce the amount of data by several orders of magnitude by focusing on areas and species of particular interest.
- KonferenzbeitragGreenalytics: a tool for marsh-up life cycle assessment of websites(Integration of Environmental Information in Europe, 2010) Zapico, Jorge Luis; Turpeinen, Marko; Brandt, Nils; Greve, Klaus; Cremers, Armin B.The environmental impact of internet is growing, reaching an estimated 1.4% of world greenhouse emissions. This impact is hidden for both users and developers. Understanding and analyzing the environmental footprint of a website is not an easy task. The impacts are distributed through multiple hardware networks and a global user base making the individual impacts difficult to allocate. This article presents the development of a functional application for generating automatic life cycle assessments for web sites based on mashing-up information. This application has the aim of making the impact of websites visible, allowing the instant analysis of their carbon footprint using existing analytics data and presenting it in an understandable and transparent way. The development process is presented with detailed information about how the calculations are performed. The results are discussed around two different cases, focusing on the challenges of calculating the server side impact and the possibilities for improvement.
- KonferenzbeitragA new validation approach to assess the quality of modeled agricultural biomass potentials using BETHY/DLR(Integration of Environmental Information in Europe, 2010) Tum, Markus; Niklaus, Markus; Günther, Kurt P.; Kappas, Martin Werner; Greve, Klaus; Cremers, Armin B.A new validation approach is presented to assess the quality of modeled agricultural biomass potentials with statistical data on high resolution. First investigations in Germany and Austria show coefficients of determination (r²) of up to 0.79 on district level. Our modeled net primary productivity is computed with the dynamic biomass model BETHY/DLR. Primarily the photosynthetic rate of vegetation types is computed with time steps of one hour and currently with a spatial resolution of about 1km x 1km. Included models compute the water balance and radiative energy transfer between atmosphere, vegetation and soil. The model is driven by meteorological data provided by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF), remote sensing data derived through SPOTVEGETATION and soil type information by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). The model output (gross primary productivity (GPP)) is calculated daily. Net primary productivity (NPP) is determined by subtracting the cumulative plant maintenance respiration from GPP. In order to validate the modeled NPP, data of crop yield estimations derived from national statistics are used to calculate above ground biomass by using conversion factors about corn to straw relations. Furthermore conversion factors about shoot to root relations are used to determine total biomass. Finally the carbon content of dry matter is estimated. With this method coefficients of determination (r²) of up to 0.67 combined with a slope of 0.83 are found for Germany. For Austrian NUTS-3 units slightly higher coefficients of determination are found (0.74) combined with a slope of 1.08. The results show that modelling NPP using the process model BETHY/DLR and remote sensing data and meteorological data as input delivers reliable estimates of above ground biomass when common agricultural conversion factors are taking into account.
- KonferenzbeitragEntwicklung eines Artenkatasters für die Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg(Integration of Environmental Information in Europe, 2010) Bock, Mathias; Glowinski, Reiner; Voß, Susanne; Greve, Klaus; Cremers, Armin B.Die Behörde für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt in Hamburg ist für die Erhebung, Speicherung und Auswertung von Artendaten für Hamburg zuständig. Sie stellt diese Daten bzw. Auswertungen dazu im Rahmen von Berichtspflichten gegenüber der EU oder auf Bundesebene zur Verfügung (z. B. FFH-Richtlinie der EU, Rote Listen). Artendaten werden aber auch als Indikatoren für Veränderungen im urbanen Raum verwendet. Im Rahmen eines Softwareentwicklungsprojektes sollen alle derzeit vorliegenden Artendaten in Hamburg in einer zentralen Datenbank in einem abgestimmten Datenmodell (Artenkataster Hamburg) zusammengeführt und für Auswertungen und Analysen zugänglich gemacht werden. Neu erhobene Artendaten sollen zukünftig nur noch im Artenkataster gespeichert werden. Die Bereitstellung für derzeit bestehende Berichtspflichten und zukünftige z. B. im Rahmen von INSPIRE hinzukommende erfolgt zukünftig zentral aus einem konsistenten Datenbestand. Das Artenkataster integriert sich in die Geodateninfrastruktur Hamburg auf der Basis von OGC- konformen Diensten, über eine OGC-Schnittstelle im EGovernment-Gateway der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg können diese Daten auch direkt im Internet bereitgestellt werden. Eine Eingabe von neuen Daten über eine Web- Erfassungskomponente ist ebenfalls vorgesehen.
- KonferenzbeitragEnhancing Software Engineering Processes towards Sustainable Software Product Design(Integration of Environmental Information in Europe, 2010) Dick, Markus; Naumann, Stefan; Greve, Klaus; Cremers, Armin B.The power consumption of ICT is still increasing. To date, it is not clear if the energy savings through ICT overbalance the energy consumption by ICT, or not. Where manifold efforts of Green IT address the environmental aspects of sustainability considering computer hardware, there is a lack of models, descriptions, or realizations in the area of computer software. In this paper, we propose a generic software development process enhancement that has the potential to integrate the consideration of sustainability aspects into arbitrary software development methodologies.
- KonferenzbeitragA pooling based load shift strategy for household appliances(Integration of Environmental Information in Europe, 2010) Lünsdorf, Ontje; Sonnenschein, Michael; Greve, Klaus; Cremers, Armin B.An increasing utilization of renewable energy sources like wind or sunlight demands for balancing energy to overcome (potentially unforeseen) fluctuations in the power production. Instead of adapting the power supply, as it is currently done, it is also possible to control the power demand. As household appliances account for a large fraction of the overall load and are a major contributor to the daily load peaks, we investigate how a pool of household appliances can be used for load shifting. The outlined strategy has the potential to integrate different appliance types into demand side management measures. A pooling algorithm is used to group appliances into virtual devices which can fulfil given stochastic constraints. Due to permanent reorganization of virtual devices, the system is able to adapt itself to long-term changes. Demand side management measures like these may be used for example to compensate errors in wind power prognosis, or to smooth the startup-ramps of conventional power plants generating balance energy.
- KonferenzbeitragOpen tools and services for INSPIRE related environmental data and metadata: reporting on experiences gained in GS Soil(Integration of Environmental Information in Europe, 2010) Epitropou, Victor; Karatzas, Kostas; Bassoukos, Anastasios; Greve, Klaus; Cremers, Armin B.The main issue with environmental geographic data and their associated metadata is that they are often scattered across numerous data providers around the world or just within a country/federation (including the EU), and that there’s a large variability in the used formats and presentation/delivery methods, especially at the web service level. The EU INSPIRE directive aims at standardizing at least the metadata format and its minimum mandatory contents, defining a minimum common degree of information interoperability and interchange in order to maximize the homogeneity and usability of metadata. Within the framework of the GS Soil project, a set of essential Free and Open Source Software tools to be used by participating partners were evaluated and tested, in order to identify and provide a free, standards-compliant set of tools to similar future geospatial environmental projects within the EU.
- KonferenzbeitragCzech and Slovak Research Programmes in the Field of ICT for Environmental Sustainability(Integration of Environmental Information in Europe, 2010) Stehliková, Marie; Greve, Klaus; Cremers, Armin B.The sustainable development framework is set in the Czech Republic as well as in the Slovak Republic to outline and define the areas of specific focus and support in order to ensure the balanced development of the economical, ecological and social pillar of the countries. The Czech SD Strategy addressed 5 key areas 1) Society, people and health, 2) Economy and innovation, 3) Spatial development, 4) Landscape, ecosystems and biodiversity and 5) A stable and secure society. Nevertheless the Slovak SD strategy approved in 2001 set the framework on following key areas: 1) developed democratic country, 2) modern state and system of the governance, 3) developed society, social solidarity and social protection, 4) balanced spatial development, 5) high potential of the human resources, 6) new economy model, 7) high quality of the environment, its protection and sustainable use of natural resources. In those areas the follow-up sectoral policies and action programmes are to be defined in both countries. One of national action programmes is the research, development and innovation framework which besides the SD strategies implement as well the other commitments. The new motto of the Czech R&D&I reform and programme from 2008 onwards which is “Science creates knowledge through money, innovation makes money from knowledge” represent the main idea that the research projects and their products will have to generate real use and will “pay off”. This article briefly introduces a situation of the research programmes in the area of environmental sustainability in the Czech and Slovak Republic. The framework of sustainable development as well as the R&D&I of both countries will be presented. The identified programmes and projects in the area of environmental sustainability will be given in the structured way with its reference to the SD national strategy. The main Czech builder of the information system for the environment and so called eEnvironment – CENIA will be introduced. The investigation and acquisition of national research programmes and projects of the Czech Republic and Slovakia in the field of ICT for Environmental Sustainability” for the EU project ICT-ENSURE was carried out by CENIA, Czech Environmental Information Agency.