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Künstliche Intelligenz 26(2) - Mai 2012

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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Task-based User-System Interaction
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012) Humayoun, Shah Rukh; Poggi, Antonella; Catarci, Tiziana; Dix, Alan
    In current electronic environments, the ever-increasing amount of personal information, means that users focus more on managing their information rather than using it to accomplish their objectives. To overcome this problem, a user task-based interactive environment is needed to help users focus on tasks they wish to perform rather than spending more time on managing their personal information. In this paper, we present parts of our on-going work on task-based user-system interaction, which highlights the need for a shift from an information-centric to a task-centric environment. More precisely, we look into issues relating to modeling user tasks that arise when users interact with the environment to fulfill their goals through these sets of tasks.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Interview with Alan Kay
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012) Ebert, Achim; Gershon, Nahum D.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Special Issue on Human-Computer Interaction
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012) Ebert, Achim
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Question/Answering Systems
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012) Visser, Ubbo
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Incorporating Usability Evaluation in Software Development Environments
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012) Humayoun, Shah Rukh
    We propose a way to define and automate user and usability evaluation from within the integrated development environment (IDE). Specifically, for the automatic analysis of usability issues and functionality problems, we provide a framework for conducting evaluation experiments using TaMoGolog-based formal task models. This approach enables the software development team to automatically collect and analyze users and system activities and behavior for recognizing usability issues and functionality problems in an efficient and effective way. The developed tools, UEMan and TaMUlator, provide the realization of the proposed approach and framework at the IDE level.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Visual Versus Verbal Location Information on the iPhone
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012) Juhasz, Orsolya Emoke; Tenbrink, Thora; Grüter, Barbara
    Mobile games become more and more embedded in our everyday lives. In this industry, particular types of spatial information are often given predominantly by visual means, while verbal and other sensorial feedback (vibration) are used for additional or different information. Since this may provide an obstacle for some users in some contexts, exploring other ways of conveying equivalent location information may facilitate the development of successful and engaging future mobile games. This paper focuses on how the same location information, given either visually or verbally, affects player performance within a mobile game. We present an explorative study using a simple, location-based game on the iPhone, testing users’ reactions to the two types of spatial information. The results, which reflect a high amount of individual variation but no negative effects on performance, are discussed by opening up the space of possibilities for future designs.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Künstliche und natürliche Intelligenz
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012) Frintrop, S.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Measuring Subjectivity
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012) Cernea, Daniel; Olech, Peter-Scott; Ebert, Achim; Kerren, Andreas
    Since the dawn of the industrial era, modern devices and interaction methods have undergone rigorous evaluations in order to ensure their functionality and quality, as well as usability. While there are many methods for measuring objective data, capturing and interpreting subjective factors—like the feelings or states of mind of the users—is still an imprecise and usually post-event process. In this paper we propose the utilization of the Emotiv EPOC commercial electroencephalographic (EEG) neuroheadset for real-time support during evaluations and user studies. We show in two evaluation scenarios that the wireless EPOC headsets can be used efficiently for supporting subjectivity measurement. Additionally, we highlight situations that may result in a lower accuracy, as well as explore possible reasons and propose solutions for improving the error rates of the device.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Sol: An Agent-Based Framework for Cyber Situation Awareness
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012) Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Carvalho, Marco; Bunch, Larry; Eskridge, Tom; Feltovich, Paul J.; Johnson, Matt; Kidwell, Dan
    In this article, we describe how we augment human perception and cognition through Sol, an agent-based framework for distributed sensemaking. We describe how our visualization approach, based on IHMC’s OZ flight display, has been leveraged and extended in our development of the Flow Capacitor, an analyst display for maintaining cyber situation awareness, and in the Parallel Coordinates 3D Observatory (PC3O or Observatory), a generalization of the Flow Capacitor that provides capabilities for developing and exploring lines of inquiry. We then introduce the primary implementation frameworks that provide the core capabilities of Sol: the Luna Software Agent Framework, the VIA Cross-Layer Communications Substrate, and the KAoS Policy Services Framework. We show how policy-governed agents can perform much of the tedious high-tempo tasks of analysts and facilitate collaboration. Much of the power of Sol lies in the concept of coactive emergence, whereby a comprehension of complex situations is achieved through the collaboration of analysts and agents working together in tandem. Not only can the approach embodied in Sol lead to a qualitative improvement in cyber situation awareness, but its approach is equally relevant to applications of distributed sensemaking for other kinds of complex high-tempo tasks.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Collaborative Multimodality
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 26, No. 2, 2012) Sonntag, Daniel
    This essay is a personal reflection from an Artificial Intelligence (AI) perspective on the term HCI. Especially for the transfer of AI-based HCI into industrial environments, we survey existing approaches and examine how AI helps to solve fundamental problems of HCI technology. The user and the system must have a collaborative goal. The concept of collaborative multimodality could serve as the missing link between traditional HCI and intuitive human-centred designs in the form of, e.g., natural language interfaces or intelligent environments. Examples are provided in the medical imaging domain.