- KonferenzbeitragCompliance of POLYAS with the common criteria protection profile - a 2010 Outlook on certified remote electronic voting(4th International Conference on Electronic Voting 2010, 2010) Menke, Niels; Reinhard, Kai; Krimmer, Robert; Grimm, RüdigerIn 2008, the German Federal Office for Information Security issued the common criteria protection profile for Online Voting Products (PP-0037). Accordingly, we evaluated the Polyas electronic voting system, which is used for legally binding elections in several international organizations (German Gesellschaft for Informatik, GI, among others), for compliance with the common criteria protection profile and worked toward fulfilling the given requirements. In this article we present the findings of the process of creating a compliant security target, necessary restrictions and assumptions to the system design as well as the workings of the committee, and architectural and procedural changes made necessary.
- KonferenzbeitragA formal IT-security model for the correction and abort requirement of electronic voting(4th International Conference on Electronic Voting 2010, 2010) Grimm, Rüdiger; Hupf, Katharina; Volkamer, Melanie; Krimmer, Robert; Grimm, RüdigerThis paper addresses a basic security requirement of electronic voting, namely that a voter can correct or abort his vote at any time prior to his final vote casting. This requirement serves as a protection against voter precipitance (haste). We specify rules for a reset and cancel function that implement the correction and abort requirement. These rules are integrated in an extended version of the formal IT security model provided in [VG08]. We show that these rules do respect the requirements covered in this model namely that each voter can cast a vote, that no voter loses his voting right without having cast a vote and that only eligible voters can cast a vote. This paper formally describes and mathematically proves the model and finally shows at which places of a voting process the formal rules apply.
- KonferenzbeitragA survey: electronic voting development and trends(4th International Conference on Electronic Voting 2010, 2010) Weldemariam, Komminist; Villafiorita, Adolfo; Krimmer, Robert; Grimm, RüdigerAny practitioner working on electronic voting (e-voting) seems to have different opinions on the main issues that seem to affect the area. On the one handgiven the criticality and the risk e-voting systems potentially pose to the democratic process-e-voting systems are permanently under a magnifying glass that amplifies any glitch, be it significant or not. On the other hand, given the interest e-voting raises within the general public, there seems to be a tendency to generalize and oversimplify. This tendency leads to attributing specific problems to all systems, regardless of context, situation, and actual systems used. Additionally, scarce know-how about the electoral context often contributes to make matters even more confused. This is not to say all e-voting systems show the security and reliability characteristics that are necessary for a system of such a criticality. On the contrary, a lot of work still has to be done. Starting from previous experiences and from a large-scale experiment we conducted in Italy, this paper provides some direction, issues, and trends in e-voting. Getting a clearer view of the research activities in the area, highlighting both positive and negative results, and emphasizing some trends could help, in our opinion, to draw a neater line between opinion and facts, and contribute to the construction of a next generation of e-voting machines to be safely and more confidently employed for elections.
- KonferenzbeitragThe role of trust, participation and identity in the propensity to e- and i-vote(4th International Conference on Electronic Voting 2010, 2010) Caporusso, Letizia; Krimmer, Robert; Grimm, RüdigerThe paper analyzes the issue of citizens' propensity to deploy automated elections as a dependent of several ascribed and attitudinal factors. Data are drawn from a computer-assisted telephone survey carried out in the Autonomous Province of Trento, which through project ProVotE sponsors the largest program of touchscreen-based voting in Italy. Alongside socio-demographic variables such as sex, age, education, and occupation, we describe how socio-political attitudes such as trust, participation, and identity affect the propensity to vote by automated means. We conclude that, based on the binomial and multinomial logistic models we implemented, our data support the hypothesis of existing divides between those who are favourable to automation in elections and those who are not, the main cleavages being age and level of education. Furthermore, a greater degree of trust in the generalised other is needed in e-voting but not perceived in i-voting, while both voting procedures appeal those who are already politically mobilized but less attached to traditions.
- KonferenzbeitragScantegrity mock election at Takoma Park(4th International Conference on Electronic Voting 2010, 2010) Sherman, Alan T.; Carback, Richard; Chaum, David; Clark, Jeremy; Essex, Aleksander; Herrnson, Paul S.; Mayberry, Travis; Popoveniuc, Stefan; Rivest, Ronald L.; Shen, Emily; Sinha, Bimal; Vora, Poorvi; Krimmer, Robert; Grimm, RüdigerWe report on our experiences and lessons learned using Scantegrity II in a mock election held April 11, 2009, in Takoma Park, Maryland (USA). Ninetyfive members of the community participated in our test of this voting system proposed for the November 2009 municipal election. Results helped improve the system for the November binding election.
- KonferenzbeitragThe virtual polling station. Transferring the sociocultural effect of poll site elections to remote internet voting(4th International Conference on Electronic Voting 2010, 2010) Richter, Philipp; Krimmer, Robert; Grimm, RüdigerPublic voting in polling stations is believed to have a socioculturallyintegrative effect, conveyed through the symbolic and ritualistic character of the election process. Remote internet voting is believed to not be able to provide this effect, because it omits the corporeal appearance at the polling station. The following contribution aims at indicating how such a sociocultural effect could be transferred from the real world polling station to remote internet elections.
- Editiertes Buch4th International Conference on Electronic Voting 2010(2010) Krimmer, Robert; Grimm, Rüdiger
- KonferenzbeitragThe use of E-voting in the austrian federation of students elections 2009(4th International Conference on Electronic Voting 2010, 2010) Krimmer, Robert; Ehringfeld, Andreas; Traxl, Markus; Krimmer, Robert; Grimm, RüdigerThe use of e-voting for the elections to the Austrian Federation of students (Hochschülerinnen und Hochschülerschaftswahlen) was one of the most sophisticated Austrian e-government projects in 2009. The task was to complement the paper based voting with an electronic voting channel in order to create new opportunities to vote. Together with the implementation of e-voting the legal basis of the federation of students was adapted to include an electronic election administration. The discussion around e-voting was rather controversial with clear pro and contra positions. This first of a kind implementation of e-voting in Austria was technically successful. Almost 1% (2.161) of the eligible students cast their votes electronically between 18th and 22nd of May 2009. For identification and authentication, they used the citizen card (the Austrian model of a smart card with digital signature) and a suitable smartcard-reader device, which was handed out for free. The anonymity was performed by using a cryptographic protocol in the postvoting phase, similar to a paper based postal voting procedure. The e-voting servers were placed in two data centers of the Federal Computing Centre (Bundesrechenzentrum) to allow for fail-safe operation. While the discussion around e-voting was rather controversial with clear pro and con positions, and marked a first nation-wide discussion around remote voting in general. For future uses of e-voting in Austria the penetration of identification and authentication means has to be raised as well as a more positive atmosphere amongst the stakeholders has to be reached.
- KonferenzbeitragE-voting in Japan: a developing case?(4th International Conference on Electronic Voting 2010, 2010) Iwasaki, Masahiro; Krimmer, Robert; Grimm, RüdigerThis paper aims to introduce the current situation of electronic voting (e-voting) in Japan and discuss its challenges. E-voting has gradually spread in Japan. It has been used a total of twenty times by ten local governments since it was first introduced in 2002. Under the current law, e-voting can be used only for the election of the head of local government or council members. The paper first introduces the actual state of e-voting in Japan. Then the current status and challenges of the electronic voting system are analyzed based on data obtained from the experiences of Japanese cases. Finally, the paper discusses what challenges the Japanese e-voting has, and what could be given as prescriptions for them.
- KonferenzbeitragAnalysis of recommendation Rec(2004)11 based on the experiences of specific attacks against the first legally binding implementation of e-voting in Austria(4th International Conference on Electronic Voting 2010, 2010) Ehringfeld, Andreas; Naber, Larissa; Grechenig, Thomas; Krimmer, Robert; Traxl, Markus; Fischer, Gerald; Krimmer, Robert; Grimm, RüdigerThis paper discusses the recommendation Rec(2004)11 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on legal, operational and technical standards for e-voting in light of the various attacks against the 2009 Austrian federation of students election. This election was the first instance of e-voting being implemented in a legally binding election in Austria. The question is if the recommendation published in 2004 is sufficient to handle real-world attacks against elections using e-voting. Based on the experience gained, several amendments to the recommendation are described.