- KonferenzbeitragExtending different business process modeling languages with domain specific concepts: the case of internal controls in EPC and BPMN(Enterprise modelling and information systems architectures, 2015) Radloff, Michael; Schultz, Martin; Nüttgens, Markus; Kolb, Jens; Leopold, Henrik; Mendling, JanConceptual models of business processes and related business process modeling languages play a crucial role in today's information systems research and practice. Common BPMLs such as BPMN 2.0 or EPC are widely accepted and applied in various domains. However, such BPMLs provide a set of generic process modeling elements but do not allow for modeling domain specific concepts. This also holds true for control means as one of the key concepts for process audits. To address this gap, this paper presents an empirically grounded extension of the EPC with modeling concepts for process-integrated control means. The results of a laboratory experiment with 58 participants demonstrate that the extension facilitates a comprehensive enactment of process audits. In conclusion, the results of this research project are contrasted with a previously designed BPMN 2.0 extension in order to present insights we gain from extending two different BPMLs with the same domain concept.
- KonferenzbeitragFindings from an experiment on flow direction of business process models(Enterprise modelling and information systems architectures, 2015) Figl, Kathrin; Strembeck, Mark; Kolb, Jens; Leopold, Henrik; Mendling, JanA core aspect of diagrammatic process modeling is the visualization of the logical and temporal order in which tasks are to be performed in a process. While conventions and guidelines exist that promote modeling processes from left-to-right or from top-to-bottom, no empirically validated design rationale can be provided for this choice so far. Therefore, this paper seeks to determine whether some flow directions are better than others from a cognitive point of view. We present the results of a controlled pilot experiment comparing the effects of four flow directions (left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom, bottom-to-top) on process model comprehension with a small sample size of 44 participants. Although there is a variety of theoretical arguments which support the use of a left-to-right flow direction as convention for process models, the preliminary empirical results of the pilot experiment were less clear-cut and showed that model readers also adapted well to uncommon reading directions.
- KonferenzbeitragThe process model matching contest 2015(Enterprise modelling and information systems architectures, 2015) Antunes, Goncalo; Bakhshandeh, Marzieh; Borbinha, Jose; Cardoso, Joao; Dadashnia, Sharam; Francescomarino, Chiara Di; Dragoni, Mauro; Fettke, Peter; Gal, Avigdor; Ghidini, Chiara; Hake, Philip; Khiat, Abderrahmane; Klinkmüller, Christopher; Kuss, Elena; Leopold, Henrik; Loos, Peter; Meilicke, Christian; Niesen, Tim; Pesquita, Catia; Péus, Timo; Schoknecht, Andreas; Sheetrit, Eitam; Sonntag, Andreas; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Thaler, Tom; Weber, Ingo; Weidlich, Matthias; Kolb, Jens; Leopold, Henrik; Mendling, JanProcess model matching refers to the automatic identification of correspondences between the activities of process models. Application scenarios of process model matching reach from model validation over harmonization of process variants to effective management of process model collections. Recognizing this, several process model matching techniques have been developed in recent years. However, to learn about specific strengths and weaknesses of these techniques, a common evaluation basis is indispensable. The second edition of the Process Model Matching Contest in 2015 hence addresses the need for effective evaluation by defining process model matching problems over published data sets. This paper summarizes the setup and the results of the contest. Next to a description of the contest matching problems, the paper provides short descriptions of all matching techniques that have been submitted for participation. In addition, we present and discuss the evaluation results and outline directions for future work in the field of process model matching.
- KonferenzbeitragBusiness process modeling support by depictive and descriptive diagrams(Enterprise modelling and information systems architectures, 2015) Koschmider, Agnes; Caporale, Timm; Fellmann, Michael; Lehner, Jonas; Oberweis, Andreas; Kolb, Jens; Leopold, Henrik; Mendling, JanThe design of a “good” business process model is a time-consuming and error-prone task and requests high training effort from the process modeler. These barriers might be a reason why business processes are often designed with software tools, which were not intentionally developed for this purpose, but are highly familiar for the process modeler (e.g., add-ins for MS Office family) and thus a process model can be quickly designed. As consequence of such a tool choice for process modeling the variety of techniques available for Business Process Management cannot be exploited. To mitigate this situation, we first examine approaches aiming to support business process modeling more intuitively. We then suggest the introduction of an additional layer to business process models with depictive diagrams that are not bounded to a concrete process modeling language or descriptive diagrams using natural language text. We then show how such a layer can be aligned with common process modeling languages and thus provides a seamless integration with more advanced Business Process Management languages and tools. We expect that our approach will fertilize techniques facilitating business process modeling for all types of process modelers including business experts with limited experience of process modeling.
- KonferenzbeitragAn enhanced communication concept for business processes(Enterprise modelling and information systems architectures, 2015) Kossak, Felix; Geist, Verena; Kolb, Jens; Leopold, Henrik; Mendling, JanSimple communication patterns often do not suffice for modelling the interplay between different business processes. In this paper, we introduce and formally specify an event-based communication concept for business process modelling, constituted by event trigger properties and event pools. We claim that this concept provides a much bigger scope for modelling communication than currently available concepts, particularly when actor and user interaction modelling are included.
- KonferenzbeitragUsing content analysis for privacy requirement extraction and policy formalization(Enterprise modelling and information systems architectures, 2015) Rinderle-Ma, Stefanie; Ma, Zhendong; Madlmayr, Bernhard; Kolb, Jens; Leopold, Henrik; Mendling, JanPrivacy in cyberspace is a major concern nowadays and enterprises are required to comply with existing privacy regulations and ensure a certain level of privacy for societal and user acceptance. Privacy is also a multidisciplinary and mercury concept, which makes it challenging to define clear privacy requirements and policies to facilitate compliance check and enforcement at the technical level. This paper investigates the potential of using knowledge engineering approaches to transform legal documents to actionable business process models through the extraction of privacy requirements and formalization of privacy policies. The paper features two contributions: A literature review of existing privacy engineering approaches shows that semi-automatic support for extracting and modeling privacy policies from textual documents is often missing. A case study applying content analysis to five guideline documents on implementing privacy-preserving video surveillance systems yields promising first results towards a methodology on semi-automatic extraction and formalization of privacy policies using knowledge engineering approaches.
- KonferenzbeitragA conceptual architecture for an event-based information aggregation engine in smart logitics(Enterprise modelling and information systems architectures, 2015) Baumgrass, Anne; Cabanillas, Cristina; Ciccio, Claudio Di; Kolb, Jens; Leopold, Henrik; Mendling, JanThe field of Smart Logistics is attracting interest in several areas of research, including Business Process Management. A wide range of research works are carried out to enhance the capability of monitoring the execution of ongoing logistics processes and predict their likely evolvement. In order to do this, it is crucial to have in place an IT infrastructure that provides the capability of automatically intercepting the digitalised transportation-related events stemming from widespread sources, along with their elaboration, interpretation and dispatching. In this context, we present here the service-oriented software architecture of such an event-based information engine. In particular, we describe the requisites that it must meet. Thereafter, we present the interfaces and subsequently the service-oriented components that are in charge of realising them. The outlined architecture is being utilised as the reference model for an ongoing European research project on Smart Logistics, namely GET Service.
- KonferenzbeitragQuality of process element labels - where are we now, where should we go from here?(Enterprise modelling and information systems architectures, 2015) Koschmider, Agnes; Kolb, Jens; Leopold, Henrik; Mendling, JanThe redesign of business process models is up to now mainly limited to the improvement of their semantic quality. Conformance is checked between statements that are used in the model and the domain to be modeled. However, to ensure the semantic quality of a process model it is crucial to consider its intended purpose (e.g., as a communication foundation). Also the empirical and pragmatic quality, which improves readability and understandability, respectively, must be addressed. Awareness should be raised about the fact that the improvement of both quality dimensions is a critical success factor. In this talk, I will argue that the curriculum of BPM must be extended by teaching concepts and guidelines towards making process models readable and understandable. Also, the improvement of process model element labels in particular and process models in general must be tackled interdisciplinary. I will show that the improvement of both quality dimensions is a hard mathematical problem. An “optimal” design of process element labels and process models must therefore be considered as a trade-off between empirical and pragmatic quality.
- Editiertes BuchEnterprise modelling and information systems architectures(2015) Kolb, Jens; Leopold, Henrik; Mendling, Jan
- KonferenzbeitragFlexible evaluation of textual labels in conceptual models(Enterprise modelling and information systems architectures, 2015) Storch, Arian; Laue, Ralf; Gruhn, Volker; Kolb, Jens; Leopold, Henrik; Mendling, JanThis paper introduces a flexible and generic approach to define customised style rules for labels in conceptual models. A rule-based language is presented which can express style rules in a flexible and context-specific way. The formalised style rules are used to analyse and evaluate textual labels of model elements. To analyse a textual label, a combination of standardised natural language processing tools such as a part-of-speech tagger or a named entity recogniser are used. With the help of these techniques, custom-defined information entities can be extracted from the model.