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BISE 65(6) - December 2023

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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Keeping Your Maturity Assessment Alive
    (Business & Information Systems Engineering: Vol. 65, No. 6, 2023) Stoiber, Christoph; Stöter, Maximilian; Englbrecht, Ludwig; Schönig, Stefan; Häckel, Björn
    Maturity models are valuable management tools for assessing and managing capabilities and therefore creating a basis for their identification, prioritization, and further development. Numerous maturity assessment methods have been developed to support organizations in applying maturity models. However, these methods are mostly used for unique assessments and only provide a snapshot of the current state of capabilities and their maturity. Certainly, this does not reflect the continuous change of capabilities within dynamic organizational environments. Moreover, the systematic selection of suitable maturity models and the identification of the actions that should be targeted following the maturity assessment require more attention. To fill these research gaps, this study proposes the generally applicable Continuous Maturity Assessment Method (CMAM) that enables comprehensive and continuous maturity assessments. The CMAM comprises five steps that extend and advance existing principles of maturity assessment and can be implemented as an organizational routine. The rigorous development of the CMAM followed basic principles of the design science research methodology, including an evaluation of six organizations in different industry sectors and an extensive industrial case study.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Disentangling Human-AI Hybrids
    (Business & Information Systems Engineering: Vol. 65, No. 6, 2023) Fabri, Lukas; Häckel, Björn; Oberländer, Anna Maria; Rieg, Marius; Stohr, Alexander
    Artificial intelligence (AI) offers great potential in organizations. The path to achieving this potential will involve human-AI interworking, as has been confirmed by numerous studies. However, it remains to be explored which direction this interworking of human agents and AI-enabled systems ought to take. To date, research still lacks a holistic understanding of the entangled interworking that characterizes human-AI hybrids, so-called because they form when human agents and AI-enabled systems closely collaborate. To enhance such understanding, this paper presents a taxonomy of human-AI hybrids, developed by reviewing the current literature as well as a sample of 101 human-AI hybrids. Leveraging weak sociomateriality as justificatory knowledge, this study provides a deeper understanding of the entanglement between human agents and AI-enabled systems. Furthermore, a cluster analysis is performed to derive archetypes of human-AI hybrids, identifying ideal–typical occurrences of human-AI hybrids in practice. While the taxonomy creates a solid foundation for the understanding and analysis of human-AI hybrids, the archetypes illustrate the range of roles that AI-enabled systems can play in those interworking scenarios.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Ranking the Ranker: How to Evaluate Institutions, Researchers, Journals, and Conferences?
    (Business & Information Systems Engineering: Vol. 65, No. 6, 2023) Aalst, Wil M. P.; Hinz, Oliver; Weinhardt, Christof
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Algorithmic Accountability
    (Business & Information Systems Engineering: Vol. 65, No. 6, 2023) Horneber, David; Laumer, Sven
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    The Future of Enterprise Information Systems
    (Business & Information Systems Engineering: Vol. 65, No. 6, 2023) Sunyaev, Ali; Dehling, Tobias; Strahringer, Susanne; Xu, Li; Heinig, Martin; Perscheid, Michael; Alt, Rainer; Rossi, Matti
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Model-Based Cybersecurity Analysis
    (Business & Information Systems Engineering: Vol. 65, No. 6, 2023) Jiang, Yuning; Jeusfeld, Manfred A.; Ding, Jianguo; Sandahl, Elin
    Critical infrastructure (CIs) such as power grids link a plethora of physical components from many different vendors to the software systems that control them. These systems are constantly threatened by sophisticated cyber attacks. The need to improve the cybersecurity of such CIs, through holistic system modeling and vulnerability analysis, cannot be overstated. This is challenging since a CI incorporates complex data from multiple interconnected physical and computation systems. Meanwhile, exploiting vulnerabilities in different information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) systems leads to various cascading effects due to interconnections between systems. The paper investigates the use of a comprehensive taxonomy to model such interconnections and the implied dependencies within complex CIs, bridging the knowledge gap between IT security and OT security. The complexity of CI dependence analysis is harnessed by partitioning complicated dependencies into cyber and cyber-physical functional dependencies. These defined functional dependencies further support cascade modeling for vulnerability severity assessment and identification of critical components in a complex system. On top of the proposed taxonomy, the paper further suggests power-grid reference models that enhance the reproducibility and applicability of the proposed method. The methodology followed was design science research (DSR) to support the designing and validation of the proposed artifacts. More specifically, the structural, functional adequacy, compatibility, and coverage characteristics of the proposed artifacts are evaluated through a three-fold validation (two case studies and expert interviews). The first study uses two instantiated power-grid models extracted from existing architectures and frameworks like the IEC 62351 series. The second study involves a real-world municipal power grid.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Explanatory Interactive Machine Learning
    (Business & Information Systems Engineering: Vol. 65, No. 6, 2023) Pfeuffer, Nicolas; Baum, Lorenz; Stammer, Wolfgang; Abdel-Karim, Benjamin M.; Schramowski, Patrick; Bucher, Andreas M.; Hügel, Christian; Rohde, Gernot; Kersting, Kristian; Hinz, Oliver
    The most promising standard machine learning methods can deliver highly accurate classification results, often outperforming standard white-box methods. However, it is hardly possible for humans to fully understand the rationale behind the black-box results, and thus, these powerful methods hamper the creation of new knowledge on the part of humans and the broader acceptance of this technology. Explainable Artificial Intelligence attempts to overcome this problem by making the results more interpretable, while Interactive Machine Learning integrates humans into the process of insight discovery. The paper builds on recent successes in combining these two cutting-edge technologies and proposes how Explanatory Interactive Machine Learning (XIL) is embedded in a generalizable Action Design Research (ADR) process – called XIL-ADR. This approach can be used to analyze data, inspect models, and iteratively improve them. The paper shows the application of this process using the diagnosis of viral pneumonia, e.g., Covid-19, as an illustrative example. By these means, the paper also illustrates how XIL-ADR can help identify shortcomings of standard machine learning projects, gain new insights on the part of the human user, and thereby can help to unlock the full potential of AI-based systems for organizations and research.