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EMISAJ Vol. 06 - 2011

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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Conceptual Development of Industrial Product-Service Systems - A model-based Approach
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures - An International Journal: Vol. 6, Nr. 2, 2011) Sadek, Tim; Köster, Matthias
    The increasing competitiveness of today’s globalised economies and changing customer requirements prompt manufacturers to provide integrated product and service solutions, referred to as Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²). An IPS² constitutes a customised solution, whereas providing performance is set above the purchase of a mere technical product. It can comprise any combination of product and service shares. Once such an offer is planned, the IPS² concept development phase generates principle solutions that meet customerspecific requirements. This article presents a model-based methodology to support an IPS² designer during the process of generating IPS² concepts in the early phase of IPS² development. This methodical framework and the modelling approach for conceptual IPS² development has been implemented as a computer-aided tool and has been evaluated by solving a typical IPS² issue.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Balancing Customer Requirements and IT Service Standardisation - A Procedural Reference Model for Individualised IT Service Agreement Configurations
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures - An International Journal: Vol. 6, Nr. 2, 2011) Brocke, Henrik; Uebernickel, Falk; Brenner, Walter
    IT service providers are increasingly urged to stringently align their service portfolio with the IT support of their customers’ business processes. Consequently, both IT expenses and its strategic contribution to value creation are expected to become subject to heightened transparency. Yet, in order to allow for standardised on-demand service request processing within the meaning of IT industrialisation, these services appear too adapted to individual customer needs, particularly as they are subject to continuous changes in business requirements. In order to address this issue, a three-phase procedural model of IT service agreement configuration is introduced: IT services thus remain transformable and configurable via predefined complementary services which are selected by configuring a customer’s individual service directory. In addition, the reutilisation of modular commitments in order to compose service specifications aims to maintain standardised IT operations. Serving as a procedural reference model, these configuration phases are introduced in detail regarding activities, roles, techniques and data structure as developed and implemented in Action Research cooperation with two IT providers.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Detecting Common Errors in Event-Driven Process Chains by Label Analysis
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures - An International Journal: Vol. 6, Nr. 1, 2011) Gruhn, Volker; Laue, Ralf
    In this article, we discuss several classes of error patterns that can frequently be found in Event-Driven Process Chains (EPC). Instances of these patterns can be detected by using a pattern-matching approach: The model is translated into a set of Prolog rules and potential modelling problems are located by querying the Prolog fact base for certain problem patterns. In particular, this article presents patterns for problems that can be detected by analysing the labels of events and functions in EPCs. To make reasoning about the contents of the labels possible, the labels are transformed into a normal form. By taking synonyms, antonyms and negating words (no, not) into account, we locate labels that contradict each other. This leads to the detection of some classes of errors like modelling of an event and its negation occurring at the same time. Our method has been applied to 1253 EPC models in German language. We have been able to detect a large number of errors in those models that remain undetected using traditional approaches for EPC validation.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures - An International Journal: Vol. 6, Nr. 2, 2011) Thomas, Oliver; Nüttgens, Markus
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Vertical Model Integration in Frameworks - Evaluation of Integration Approaches and Investigation of the Feasibility of Implementing a Case Study
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures - An International Journal: Vol. 6, Nr. 3, 2011) Bögel, Stephan; Esswein, Werner
    The model driven simulation of mobile construction equipment is investigated in the BMBF-funded project INPROVY. A framework was introduced to structure the problem and divide it into different model layers. The vertical integration of the different model layers is the subject of this article. An evaluation through the method of feature-based comparisons of the integration approaches that represent the state of research is carried out. In a small case-study the applicability of vertical model integration in the field of model driven simulation is analysed.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Checking the Semantic Correctness of Process Models - An Ontology-driven Approach Using Domain Knowledge and Rules
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures - An International Journal: Vol. 6, Nr. 3, 2011) Fellmann, Michael; Hogrebe, Frank; Thomas, Oliver; Nüttgens, Markus
    This paper presents an ontology-driven approach that aims at ensuring the semantic correctness of semiformal process models. Despite the widespread use of these models in research and practice, their semantic correctness is still a challenging issue. We suggest an ontology-driven approach making use of background knowledge encoded in formal ontologies and rules. In the first step, we develop a model for ontology-based representation of process models. In the second step, we use this model in conjunction with rules and machine reasoning for applying checks concerning the semantic correctness. We apply our approach using real-life administrative process models taken from a capital city.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Recognising Activity Labeling Styles in Business Process Models
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures - An International Journal: Vol. 6, Nr. 1, 2011) Leopold, Henrik; Smirnov, Sergey; Mendling, Jan
    Quality assurance is a serious issue for large-scale process modelling initiatives. While formal control flow analysis has been extensively studied in prior research, there is little work on how the textual content of a process model and its activity labels can be systematically analysed. In this context, it is a major challenge to systematically identify and to consequently assure high label quality. As many large process model collections contain more than thousand models, each including several activity labels, there is a strong need for an automatic detection of labels that might be of bad quality. Recent research has shown that different grammatical styles correlate with potential ambiguity of a label. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for recognition of activity labeling styles. The developed algorithm exploits natural language processing techniques, e.g., part of speech tagging and analysis of the grammatical structure. We also study how ontologies, like WordNet, can support the solution. We conduct a thorough evaluation of the developed techniques utilising about 6,000 activity labels from the SAP Reference Model. The evaluation of this algorithm shows that spurious labels can be identified with a significant level of precision and recall. In this way, our approach can be used as a means of quality assurance for process repository management by listing bad quality labels, which a human modeler should correct.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Service Modelling as a Basis for Simulation
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures - An International Journal: Vol. 6, Nr. 2, 2011) Kloos, Oliver; Nissen, Volker; Petsch, Mathias; Schorcht, Hagen
    Process models are often created without regard to their possible later use in simulations. If a process model generated in this way is to be simulated, additional information must be gathered, the model adapted and transferred into an appropriate simulation environment. This process is complex, weakly structured and errorprone. Using practical example data from an outpatient clinic, this work introduces an approach for model transformation with which service process models can be transferred into a simulation environment in a structured way and supported by the system. The transformation concept focuses on process models generated without taking into consideration the requirements of future simulation. The concept prepares the process models for simulation and supports the transfer of the models into the appropriate simulation environment.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    A Conception of a Presentation Development and Management System Featuring ‘Smart Slides’
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures - An International Journal: Vol. 6, Nr. 1, 2011) Frank, Ulrich
    This paper presents a conception of a presentation development and management system (PDMS) and a related process model that guides its adequate use. It is inspired by the idea to replace certain graphical representations on presentation slides with diagrams that are constructed with domain-specific modelling languages (DSML) and corresponding model editors. The PDMS features an extensible set of graphical DSML that originate in a method for enterprise modelling. They provide the conceptual foundation for graphical representations that include domain-specific semantics. Specifying DSML and generating code for corresponding model editors is supported by an integrated metamodelling environment. Various DSML can be combined to create interactive, multi-language diagrams. The embedded semantics enables versatile machine analysis and allows for interactive slides. An accompanying compound architecture allows for integrating interactive diagrams with slides that contain traditional types of content such as text or drawings. Furthermore, it provides the conceptual foundation for storing presentations in a steadily growing common repository of organisational knowledge, thereby promoting reuse on various levels of abstraction.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Reference Modelling in Health Care - State of the Art and Proposal for the Construction of a Reference Model
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures - An International Journal: Vol. 6, Nr. 3, 2011) Schlieter, Hannes; Esswein, Werner
    The quality of medical services gains increasing importance in the consumer perception. Up to 2003, the outpatient physicians had sole responsibility for the implementation of a quality management system. To standardise the utilisation of such systems, the legislature decided on the mandatory implementation of a quality management system (QMS) by 2009. However, the introduction was slow due to very time consuming and costly processes. Knowledge about the own processes is an essential part of QMS. Process models are the common tool to document them, as well as being effective instruments to manage organisational structures. To make the design process of such models more effective, reference models are built to foster the reuse of common and best practice solutions in similar cases. This paper aims to apply the theoretical knowledge of reference modelling in the context of the ambulatory sector. It presents the empirically based construction of a reference model. Therefore structured interviews were carried out with physicians of various disciplines.