- KonferenzbeitragModular biometric authentication service system (MBASSy)(BIOSIG 2010: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures. Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures, 2010) Witte, Heiko; Nickel, Claudia; Brömme, Arslan; Busch, ChristophIn this paper we present the design of a modular authentication system, which enables users to select an authentication procedure by preference. A survey, carried out by N.L. Clarke and S.M. Furnell [CF05], proved the classical PIN-authentication to be inconvenient for many users. Passwords and PINs are either secure or easy to remember. Since humans tend to forget complex permutations of characters and numbers, the chosen secrets are often insecure. The purpose of the system is to provide an infrastructure which allows the implementation and usage of alternative authentication procedures. This approach could lead to an increased acceptance of authentication on smartphones and thus an increased security of the devices. A prototype based on the concepts presented in this paper was implemented for the android operating system and a gait recognition module is being actively developed. Further modules like face recognition, voice recognition or graphical authentication schemes can be integrated which depicts the flexibility of the system.
- KonferenzbeitragPerformance of the fuzzy vault for multiple fingerprints(BIOSIG 2010: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures. Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures, 2010) Merkle, Johannes; Niesing, Matthias; Schwaiger, Michael; Ihmor, Heinrich; Korte, Ulrike; Brömme, Arslan; Busch, ChristophThe fuzzy vault is an error tolerant authentication method that ensures the privacy of the stored reference data. Several publications have proposed the application of the fuzzy vault to fingerprints, but the results of subsequent analyses indicate that a single finger does not contain sufficient information for a secure implementation. In this contribution, we present an implementation of a fuzzy vault based on minutiae information in several fingerprints aiming at a security level comparable to current cryptographic applications. We analyze and empirically evaluate the security, efficiency, and robustness of the construction and several optimizations. The results allow an assessment of the capacity of the scheme and an appropriate selection of parameters.
- KonferenzbeitragBiometric systems in future preventive scenarios – Legal issues and challenges(BIOSIG 2010: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures. Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures, 2010) Hornung, Gerrit; Desoi, Monika; Pocs, Matthias; Brömme, Arslan; Busch, ChristophThe privacy and data protection challenges posed by biometric systems have been discussed in detail in the last years. Both security opportunities and privacy risks however may develop and change with the technical enhancement of the respective systems, which also induces the emergence of new application scenarios. One group of such new scenarios appears to be the prevention of criminal or in other ways dangerous behaviour. From a legal point of view, this brings about new challenges which go well beyond the problems of authentication as such. While some of the features of the scenarios discussed below may not be feasible in the short term, it is apparent that the associated fundamental rights and data protection law problems will have to be addressed in the future. This applies to the international plane as well as to national legal orders, for which Germany will serve as an example in the following.
- Editiertes BuchBIOSIG 2010: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures. Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures(2010) Brömme, Arslan; Busch, Christoph
- KonferenzbeitragApplikation des DBSCAN Clustering-Verfahrens zur Generierung von Ground-Truth Fingerabdruck-Minutien(BIOSIG 2010: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures. Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures, 2010) Abt, Sebastian; Busch, Christoph; Nickel, Claudia; Brömme, Arslan; Busch, ChristophBiometrische Verfahren werden häufig im Rahmen der Authentifizierung zum Schutz wichtiger Daten und Systeme eingesetzt. Hierzu werden biometrische Referenzen gespeichert, die Informationen über biometrische Charakteristika der betroffenen Individuen enthalten. Um diese biometrischen Referenzen in offenen und verteilten biometrischen Systemen nutzen zu können, ist eine Standardisierung der Datenaustauschformate notwendig. Eine gute Erkennungsleistung ist nur erzielbar, wenn ausgetauschte Datensätze auch standardkonform erstellt werden. Das Einhalten dieser Standards muss mittels geeigneter syntaktischer und semantischer Konformitätstests sichergestellt werden. Im Rahmen eines semantischen Konformitätstests wird geprüft, ob die gespeicherten Referenzen ein wahres Abbild der biometrischen Charakteristika darstellen. Zur Durchführung semantischer Konformitätstests ist jedoch die Existenz eines entsprechenden Referenzdatensatzes unbedingte Voraussetzung. Derartige Referenzdatensätze werden zur Zeit jedoch erst erstellt. Diese Arbeit leistet einen Beitrag zur Erzeugung eines solchen Referenzdatensatzes am Beispiel von Fingerabdruck-Minutien. Hierzu wird das DBSCAN Clustering-Verfahren auf Datenpunkte angewendet, die von daktyloskopischen Experten durch manuelle Analyse von Fingerabdruck-Bildern bestimmt wurden. Mit Hilfe des Clustering-Verfahrens werden Ground-Truth Fingerabdruck-Minutien erzeugt, die als Referenzdatensatz zum Durchführen semantischer Konformitätstests von automatischen Fingerabdruckidentifikationssystemen genutzt werden können.
- KonferenzbeitragTowards improving the NIST fingerprint image quality (NFIQ) algorithm(BIOSIG 2010: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures. Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures, 2010) Merkle, Johannes; Schwaiger, Michael; Breitenstein, Marco; Bausinger, Oliver; Elwart, Kristina; Nuppeney, Markus; Brömme, Arslan; Busch, ChristophThe NIST Fingerprint Image Quality (NFIQ) algorithm has become a standard method to assess fingerprint image quality. However, in many applications a more accurate and reliable assessment is desirable. In this publication, we report on our efforts to optimize the NFIQ algorithm by a re-training of the underlying neural network based on a large fingerprint image database. Although we only achieved a marginal improvement, our work has revealed several areas for potential optimization.
- KonferenzbeitragThe meaningful, safe and reliable use of biometrics(BIOSIG 2010: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures. Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures, 2010) Grijpink, Jan H. A. M.; Brömme, Arslan; Busch, ChristophThis paper introduces the current results of the debates within the Netherlands Biometrics Forum (NBF) on the principles that lead to a meaningful safe and reliable use of biometrics. Biometrics is becoming an important element of our information society, but new technology is often initially used incorrectly. This is partly due to so-called fallacies of the wrong level. In practice, large-scale systems tend to work out differently compared with small-scale applications, thus presenting additional problems at that larger scale that should have been taken into account during design and development. That implies that the first major applications can confront us with worrying social risks for which effective solutions have yet to be found. This paper, therefore, proposes to explicitly use the concept of identity fraud (identity theft) as litmus test of any biometrics application. The point is made that excessive concern about privacy inadvertently exacerbates these social risks. It is made clear that the assessment criterion 'safety' implies the protection of privacy, but that this does not necessarily apply the other way round. Because current large-scale applications seem to have neglected major privacy and security risks, this paper is primarily meant to stimulate this debate.
- KonferenzbeitragFingerprint recognition with cellular partitioning and co-sinusoidal triplets(BIOSIG 2010: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures. Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures, 2010) Hirzel, Jan; Hartung, Daniel; Busch, Christoph; Brömme, Arslan; Busch, ChristophIn this fingerprint verification approach, a fingerprint image is divided into equally sized cells and the pattern is represented by a substitute resulting in a feature vector of fixed length. A related ISO standard recommends three different approaches for the selection of these. It suggests a cell size of approximately two ridges per cell. For the co-sinusoidal triplet approach for the retrieval of the spectral component this assumption was investigated. The influence of the cell size on the biometric performance was supported and additionally, a sound comparison method was implemented. To maintain a comprehensible evaluation the open Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC) databases FVC2000 and FVC2002 were used.
- KonferenzbeitragA reference framework for the privacy assessment of keyless biometric template protection systems(BIOSIG 2010: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures. Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures, 2010) Kevenaar, Tom; Korte, Ulrike; Merkle, Johannes; Niesing, Matthias; Ihmor, Heinrich; Busch, Christoph; Zhou, Xuebing; Brömme, Arslan; Busch, ChristophOver the past decades, a number of methods have been reported in the scientific literature to protect the privacy of biometric information stored in biometric systems. Keyless Biometric Template Protection (KBTP) methods aim to protect biometric information without the use of long-term secrets by deploying one-way functions. These KBTP methods are currently developed to an extent that commercial products have become available. When assessing and comparing different KBTP methods it is important to have a common and generic approach. Therefore, in this paper we present a reference framework that can be used in assessing and comparing the privacy properties of KBTP systems.
- KonferenzbeitragTemplate protection for biometric gait data(BIOSIG 2010: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures. Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures, 2010) Nickel, Claudia; Zhou, Xuebing; Busch, Christoph; Brömme, Arslan; Busch, ChristophBiometric gait recognition is a well suited method for authentication on mobile devices as it is unobtrusive and concurrent. Hence, in contrast to PIN authentication it is no extra-effort for the user. The characteristic gait of a subject can be recorded using accelerometers which are nowadays already contained in many mobile devices. From this data biometric feature vectors can be extracted and stored as reference data on the device. Only if the user is not recognized by his walk an active authentication via PIN is necessary. As the number of attacks on mobile devices increases it cannot be assumed that the data stored on the device is under constant control of the subject. Therefore, template protection techniques should be applied to secure biometric data. As biometric gait recognition is a new field of research no specific template protection methods have been developed so far. This paper describes a new method for securing biometric gait features based on histograms and using the earth mover's distance for comparison. The method is tested with gait data of 48 subjects recorded using a mobile phone and the results are compared to the ones obtained without template protection.