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EMISAJ Vol. 17 - 2022

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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Multi-Level Modeling with Openflexo/FML
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 15, Nr. 9, 2022) Sylvain Guérin, Joel Champeau
    Model federation is a multi-model management approach based on the use of virtual models and loosely coupled links. The models in a federation remain autonomous and represented in their original technological spaces whereas virtual models and links (which are not level bounded) serve as control components used to present different views to the users and maintain synchronization. In this paper we tackle the EMISAJ multi-level process modeling challenge, which consists in providing a solution to the problem of specifying and enacting processes. Solutions must fulfill a number of requirements for a process representation defined at an abstract process-definition level and at various more concrete domain-specific levels, resulting in a multi-level hierarchy of related models. We present a solution based on model federation and discuss the advantages and limitations of using this approach for multi-level modeling. Concretely, we use virtual models and more precisely the Federation Modeling Language (FML) that serves to describe them as the main building block in order to solve the process modeling challenge whereas the federation feature is used as a means to provide editing tools for the resulting process language. Our solution fulfills all the challenge requirements and is fully implemented with the Openflexo framework.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Multi-Level Modelling with MultEcore
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 15, Nr. 8, 2022) Alejandro Rodríguez, Fernando Macías
    The MULTI Challenges are intended to encourage the Multi-Level Modelling research community to submit solutions to the same, well described problem. This paper presents one solution in the context of process management, where universal properties of process types along with task, artefact and actor types, together with possible particular occurrences for scoped domains, are modelled. We discuss our solution, detailing how we handle each requirement and explain how we use the different features that the MultEcore tool supports to construct the proposed process case study. We not only focus on the structural dimension of the proposed system where the different models that define the language are provided, but also explore the specification of the static semantics to verify structural constraints and dynamic semantics that refer to the behavioural aspect of the modelled system.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Dual Deep Modeling of Business Processes
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 15, Nr. 7, 2022) Bernd Neumayr, Christoph G. Schuetz
    Multi-level modeling (MLM) facilitates conceptual modeling at multiple levels, with clabjects as basic modeling constructs that combine characteristics of metaclasses, classes and objects. Different MLM approaches differ, among others, in the meaning and structure of levels and clabjects, in the strictness or flexibility regarding cross-level relationships, and in the mechanisms for deep characterization by which clabjects at higher levels describe and constrain clabjects at multiple lower levels. The Multi-level Process Challenge provides a testbed for MLM approaches to highlight design decisions regarding these aspects. In this paper we solve the challenge using Dual Deep Modeling (DDM), a MLM approach that features dual potencies which facilitate high flexibility for cross-level relationships. With relationships with dual potencies, a single clabject can play multiple roles at different levels of instantiation, thereby DDM facilitates very compact multi-level models.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Multi-level modeling with LML
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 15, Nr. 6, 2022) Arne Lange, Colin Atkinson
    This paper presents a solution to the MULTI Process Challenge which was first posed to the participants of the MULTI workshop at the MODELS conference in 2019 and subsequently adapted for this special issue of the EMISA Journal. The structure of the paper therefore follows the guidelines laid out in the Challenge description. The models are represented in the Level-agnostic Modeling Language LML and the DOCL constraint language using the Melanee deep modeling tool. After first outlining the case study and documenting which aspects are supported in the LML solution, the paper presents multi-level models for both the insurance and the software engineering domains. This is followed by a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. The presented model covers all mandatory and optional aspects of the Challenge case study.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Evaluating DeepTelos for ConceptBase
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 15, Nr. 5, 2022) Manfred A. Jeusfeld
    The process modeling challenge provides an opportunity to compare various approaches to multi-level conceptual modeling. In particular, the challenge requests the definition of constructs for designing process models plus the facilities to create process models with these constructs, and to analyze the execution of such processes, all in one multi-level model. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of DeepTelos in solving the challenge. DeepTelos is an extension of the Telos modeling language that adds a small number of rules and constraints to the Telos axioms in order to facilitate multi-level modeling by means of so-called most-general instances, a variant of the powertype pattern. We present the technology behind DeepTelos and address the individual tasks of the process modeling challenge. A critical review discusses strengths and weaknesses exposed by the solution to the challenge.
  • Journal Editorial
    Special Issue on Multi-Level Modeling Process Challenge
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 15, Nr. 4, 2022) João Paulo A. Almeida, Thomas Kühne
    Multi-level modeling is an extension of traditional two-level object-oriented modeling which over the years has spawned several related solution technologies. These technologies embody a variety of multi-level modeling approaches, with differences spanning the range between superficial detail to fundamental divergence. Understanding those differences, as well as the respective trade-offs of different technologies can be difficult when looking at each technology in isolation and/or when technology demonstration application scenarios are not standardized. This EMISAJ special issue invited solutions to a multi-level modeling process challenge (Almeida et al. 2021), in order to allow contributors to showcase advantages and discuss shortcomings of their technologies. The contributions featured in this special issue therefore do not only support a deeper understanding of each technology respectively, but in combination also support comparisons among technologies.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Multi-Level Design of Process-Oriented Enterprise Information Systems
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 15, Nr. 10, 2022) Ulrich Frank, Tony Clark
    This paper presents prototypical multi-level models of two uses cases. They comprise models of business processes and of models that represent the context required to execute a business process. On the one hand, the context consists of the organizational units that are responsible for the execution of processes. They are represented by a model of organizational structures. On the other hand, the context includes the artifacts that are needed or manipulated by processes. The models serve to demonstrate the specific power of multi-level modeling. First, they integrate models on higher levels, which correspond to domain-specific modeling languages, with those on lower levels. In addition, models are supplemented with objects on L0 to demonstrate how these can be integrated. The models are executable without the need to generate code, since models and corresponding program code share the same representation, thus demonstrating the possibility of advanced application system architectures, which allow users to navigate a comprehensive representation of the system they work with at runtime. The presentation of the models is supplemented with a general evaluation of multi-level concepts. The design of the models was inspired by the EMISA process challenge. Therefore, they are evaluated against the requirements defined with the challenge. In addition, a challenge is discussed that goes beyond the challenge, that is, the design of multi-level models of behavior.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    100 Years of Graphical Business Process Modelling
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 15, Nr. 3, 2022) Ralf Laue, Heinrich C. Mayr
    In December 1921, Frank B. and Lillian Moller Gilbreth held a presentation entitled “Process Charts” at the Annual Meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. They presented a diagrammatic notation for depicting work processes. This was the reason for initiating a call for papers for a special edition of the EMISA Journal. The aim of this issue is to reflect on the history of graphical business process modelling as well as on current and future challenges. In this editorial, we will shortly introduce the ideas behind the Process Charts method. We realize that some ideas discussed 100 years ago still remain highly relevant while modern work environment raises issues that would be unthinkable a century ago.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Combining Goal modelling with Business Process modelling
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 15, Nr. 2, 2022) Daniel Amyot, Okhaide Akhigbe
    Goal modelling aims to capture stakeholder and system goals, together with social, intentional, and structural relationships, in a way that supports trade-off analysis and decision making. Goal models and business process models provide complementary and synergetic views of a system, which lead to a more complete understanding of what exists and a better description of what needs to be designed than with only one of these views. The User Requirements Notation (URN), standardized in 2008 by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) with improved versions in 2012 and 2018, combines goal modelling with process modelling, while providing graphical and textual syntaxes for both views. URN helps modellers exploit the value of social modelling in the context of process design and improvement. In this paper, we report on nearly two decades of combined goal/process modelling with URN in different areas -- based on coarse-grained statistics from a literature review and the authors' personal experiences with URN. In particular, beyond the telecommunication services for which URN was created, we highlight applications to goal/process alignments, regulatory compliance and intelligence, process adaptation and improvement, value co-creation and service systems, and goal-oriented process mining, as well as several advanced modelling techniques. An overview of the tool-supported analyses (for satisfaction, alignment, compliance, and others) and model creation mechanisms (composition, aspects, slicing, adaptation, reuse, and others) is also provided. The last part of this paper focuses on important challenges and exciting opportunities for future research, especially in the areas of data-driven applications (e.g, AI/machine learning), socio-cyber-physical systems, and usable automation.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Examining the PASS Approach to Process Modelling for Digitalised Manufacturing
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 15, Nr. 1, 2022) Moser, Christoph; Kannengiesser, Udo; Elstermann, Matthes
    This article investigates whether an existing process modelling notation - the Parallel Activity Specification Scheme (PASS) - can support the digitalisation of manufacturing processes. In particular, four aspects are examined that have previously been claimed to be benefits of the PASS notation: ease of modelling, distributed modelling, incremental change, and IT integration. This is done by analysing three digital transformation projects in the manufacturing industry. The projects included the analysis and improvement of cross-department value streams, the introduction of Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) on the shopfloor, and the specification of a new Manufacturing Execution System (MES). The ways in which PASS was used and whether it was able to provide its claimed benefits are presented and analysed.