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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Perception of an Uncertain Ethical Reasoning Robot
    (i-com: Vol. 18, No. 1, 2019) Stellmach, Hanna; Lindner, Felix
    This study investigates the effect of uncertainty expressed by a robot facing a moral dilemma on humans’ moral judgment and impression formation. In two experiments, participants were shown a video of a robot explaining a moral dilemma and suggesting a decision to make. The robot either expressed certainty or uncertainty about the decision it suggests. Participants rated how much blame the robot deserves for its decision, the moral wrongness of the chosen action, and their impression of the robot in terms of four scale dimensions measuring social perception. The results suggest that the subpopulation of participants unfamiliar with the moral dilemma assigns significantly more blame to the uncertain robot as compared to the certain one, while expressed uncertainty has less effect on moral wrongness judgments. The second experiment suggests that higher blame ratings are mediated by the fact that the uncertain robot was perceived as more humanlike. We discuss implications of this result for the design of social robots.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Human-Centered Design in the Energy Turnaround Project Enera – It Pays to Go Off the Beaten Track!
    (i-com: Vol. 18, No. 1, 2019) Fortmann, Jutta; Glanert, Frank
    In this article, we give insights into the development of an ‘interface of energy’, which is developed as part of the energy turnaround project ‘enera’. This interface shall allow communication between the human and the future energy network which will be dominated by renewable energy sources and on-site power generation. We show how we applied Human-Centered Design methods to address the challenge of designing a user interface for an infrastructure that is still in development. Further, we show how this approach was successfully combined with public relations, such as feedback sessions on prototypes as part of an open Barcamp. We give insights into interviews, profiles, personas, public operations, user needs, prototyping and testing. As a special feature we conducted prototyping and prototype testing workshops in a residential house within the project region. These turned out to be very successful for many reasons, e. g., in that the natural environment served as a creative stimulator. Besides, the workshops had a lasting effect on the participants, who were members of the project as well as volunteers living in the project region.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Requirements and Interaction Patterns for a Novel Interaction Device for Patients in Intensive Care
    (i-com: Vol. 18, No. 1, 2019) Kordts, Börge; Kopetz, Jan Patrick; Henkel, Adrienne; Schrader, Andreas; Jochems, Nicole
    Intensive care patients that are weaned from mechanical ventilation are facing substantial physical and psychical stress. Due to the breathing tube, they often cannot voice their basic needs adequately. Possible consequences, amongst other complications, are a prolonged healing process and a delirium. To address this issue and support patient communication in intensive care, we provide a solution tailored to patients that are dealing with limited cognitive and physiological abilities, hindering them to use traditional devices efficiently. For this purpose, we develop a novel interaction device tailored to the special situation of in-bed interaction. In this paper, we present key requirements for the device, which are relevant to the interaction itself as well as possible interaction gestures that may be performed with the device. The basis for this is a human-centered design process consisting of a comprehensive user and context analysis, as well as a requirements analysis. As a result, we identified three categories relevant for the interaction, namely look and feel, sensors, and actuators. The results of the requirement analysis were precise enough to start the actual development process of the device.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Argus Vision: A Tracking Tool for Exhibition Designers
    (i-com: Vol. 18, No. 1, 2019) Skowronski, Moritz; Klinkhammer, Daniel; Reiterer, Harald
    Contemporary exhibitions are increasingly staged using extensive and often interactive media. To create such exhibitions, exhibition design companies employ professionals from a wide range of different disciplines. The support of interdisciplinary exhibition designers in the design process is one goal of research in Human-Computer Interaction. This includes the deployment of Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Tools that enable professionals from all disciplines involved to design and create interactive media themselves. In this paper, we will present Argus Vision, a DIY Tool, which allows exhibition designers the use of camera-tracking to rapidly prototype and develop immersive exhibitions and interactive installations. We successfully used Argus Vision in two real-world case studies both in the prototyping and in the deployment of two installations in exhibitions. Additionally, we conducted expert interviews with exhibition designers, investigating the tool’s usefulness for them.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    The Interactive Self – A Review on Simulating Social Interactions to Understand the Mechanisms of Social Agency
    (i-com: Vol. 18, No. 1, 2019) Brandi, Marie-Luise; Kaifel, Daniela; Bolis, Dimitris; Schilbach, Leonhard
    The sense of agency is a core element of self-experiences and is defined as the feeling of oneself being the ‘initiator’ of an action. It is thought to depend on an implicit coupling of action-outcome predictions and the sensory perception of the action. This concept is well-studied in the motor-domain, but less is known about agency during social interactions. It is clear that a sense of agency also occurs when we perform a social action (e. g. looking at someone’s eyes) and receiving feedback by another person (e. g. returning eye-contact). Here, we will refer to the experience of agency within a social interaction as the sense of social agency. The main aim of this article is to first, describe the concept of social agency and second review how virtual reality can help to simulate social interactions in order to systematically study self-experiences and social agency. Gaze-contingent eye-tracking paradigms represent a powerful tool in this endeavour, while we emphasise the importance of implementing ecologically valid, interactive stimuli. We furthermore propose a computational approach that can be useful to analyse such data based on the concept of predictive processing. Finally, we highlight the clinical relevance of this account and suggest how this approach can be helpful in providing a mechanistic description of social impairments across various psychiatric disorders. With this article, we attempt to review previous experimental work, suggest new methodological procedures and encourage future empirical research in the field.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Self-Encounter in Virtual Reality in Robot-Based Telepresence
    (i-com: Vol. 18, No. 1, 2019) von der Heyde, Markus
    Have you ever met yourself? Have you met your past? This report is meant to make a phenomenon known in which VR users at a break-in-presence do not fall back into the lab environment. However, we are not yet able to provide tangible evidence and systematic research about it. Setup: We describe a virtual reality application which originally was intended to provide control for a search and rescue robot. Due to a design requirement to use very limited resources, we developed a sparse representation of the past of the robot. The user encounters the past path of the robot in VR as a collection of 360° photo-spheres which each captures one instant. Multiple users of the application can individually review all past pictures. The most recent picture represents the current perspective of the robot. In addition, each user can interact with virtual objects, e. g., control the robot. Observation: According to perceptual research, breaks-in-presence might occur after sensory conflicts. An encounter of one’s self in VR introduces a perceptual and cognitive conflict. Users were able to realign with their own episodic memory and did not fall back into the lab environment as a result of this new type of break-in-presence.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    A Heuristic Checklist for Second Screen Applications
    (i-com: Vol. 18, No. 1, 2019) Lohmüller, Valentin; Schmaderer, Daniel; Wolff, Christian
    This paper presents domain-specific heuristics for second screen applications and the development of a heuristics checklist to enable a more intuitive and structured application of the created heuristics. The heuristics presented were developed on the basis of Nielsen [12] Ten Usability Heuristics in a research-based approach using specific literature and a focus group. In order to evaluate the quality of the derived checklist, a heuristic evaluation of a second screen application with five users was carried out and its results compared to a user study with 20 participants. This resulted in an average validity of 0.5 and a high completeness of 0.74. The harmonic mean of these values results in an F-measure of 0.6 with an equal weighting. This value speaks for a sufficient validity of the created heuristic checklist in the first iteration.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Potentials of Virtual Reality as an Instrument for Research and Education
    (i-com: Vol. 18, No. 1, 2019) Zender, Raphael; Knoth, Alexander H.; Fischer, Martin H.; Lucke, Ulrike
    Virtual Reality (VR) is currently on everyone’s lips for various purposes. Although the hype is currently nearing its productive plateau, there are still uncertainties about the utilization and potential of the technology in research and educational contexts. Together with the two following articles on the subject of VR research, this article provides an overview of the inherent potential as well as remaining challenges in the use of VR as an instrument for research and education. These will be clarified and critically examined on the basis of specific academic projects. Based on this, the article concludes with a comprehensive look on the need for further discussion of ethical issues as the key for VR success in research and education.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    (i-com: Vol. 18, No. 1, 2019) Ziegler, Jürgen