- KonferenzbeitragHow to create trust in electronic voting over an untrusted platform(Electronic Voting 2006 – 2nd International Workshop, Co-organized by Council of Europe, ESF TED, IFIP WG 8.6 and E-Voting.CC, 2006) Skagestein, Gerhard; Haug, Are Vegard; Nødtvedt, Einar; Rossebø, Judith; Krimmer, RobertCasting electronic votes via an inherently unreliable channel like the Internet in an uncontrolled environment is controversial for two main reasons: The first one is of democratic nature and the second of technical nature. The democratic concerns are about the possible dangers of buying and selling votes and so called 'family voting'. The technical concerns are how to convince everybody involved that the votes will be anonymously and accurately recorded and counted, and that no votes will get changed or lost, and that no 'fake votes' will be introduced, with the knowledge that any computerized system may contain bugs or may be hacked by evildoers. In this paper, we will show how the principle of repeated vote casting may be used to alleviate both the democratic and the technical concerns above, and how hybrid cryptography makes it possible for the voter to inspect his votes as stored within the voting system.
- KonferenzbeitragThe electoral legislation of the basque autonomous community regarding electronic vote(Electronic Voting 2006 – 2nd International Workshop, Co-organized by Council of Europe, ESF TED, IFIP WG 8.6 and E-Voting.CC, 2006) Fernández, Rosa Ma.; González, Esther; José Manuel, Vera; Krimmer, RobertThe Basque Autonomous Community constitutes the only Spanish experience of legal electronic vote regulation. The Basque Government decided, by means of a government bill that was voted in its legislative Chamber on June of 1998, to reform its electoral law and insert, as possible option, an electronic vote by means of a magnetic strip card. This Law, which has not been applied yet, presents a series of important changes and of potential modifications in the Basque electoral system and, perhaps, in the Spanish system. At the same time, in the year 2004, a new government Bill of the Basque autonomous Community is presented in which an electronic vote legal regulation is once again presented. The news regarding the previous project are important. Its processing is interrupted by the dissolution of the Chamber and the new Government formation that, still today, has not retaken up this initiative. The electronic vote in “Euskadi” is a regulated normative topic but that has not yet been utilized in an electoral procedure with binding character.
- KonferenzbeitragMultiple casts in online voting: Analyzing chances(Electronic Voting 2006 – 2nd International Workshop, Co-organized by Council of Europe, ESF TED, IFIP WG 8.6 and E-Voting.CC, 2006) Volkamer, Melanie; Grimm, Rüdiger; Krimmer, RobertWe analyze multiple casts as an easy and non-technical approach to overcome some of the open questions and risks of online voting. The mechanism of multiple casts can be added to almost all existing online voting systems. Nevertheless, there are also some disadvantages, for instance the validity of a timestamp, which are discussed in the paper as well.
- KonferenzbeitragE-voting in Brazil - the risks to democracy(Electronic Voting 2006 – 2nd International Workshop, Co-organized by Council of Europe, ESF TED, IFIP WG 8.6 and E-Voting.CC, 2006) Rodrigues-Filho, José; Cynthia J., Alexander; Batista, Luciano C.; Krimmer, RobertLiterature has shown that countries with strong democratic traditions, such as the United States and Canada, are not yet using electronic voting systems intensively, due to the concern for and emphasis on security. It has revealed that there is no such thing as an error-free computer system, let alone an electronic voting system, and that existing technology does not offer the conditions necessary for a reliable, accurate and secure electronic voting system. In this context, then, what are the risks of e-voting to democracy? In what ways, if at all, can more fragile, less mature democracies be buttressed with e-voting systems? As a key component of e-democracy, it seems that e-voting technologies are to become more secure and increasingly reliable in the near future and will indeed be adopted in many countries. In what ways, if at all, will the introduction of such systems increase voter confidence in the political system, promote citizen engagement in political life, and nurture the evolution of democracy? If both e-voting and e- democracy are emerging based on popular demand - that is, as a demand-driven alternative to current processes, then there is no doubt that they are likely to enhance and improve the efficiency of traditional democracy. However, if e-voting technology is being introduced based on a supply-driven fashion - the technology exists therefore it should and must be implemented - then the implications for democracy should be considered. Brazil’s introduction of e-voting offers a cautionary tale of supply-driven technological implication. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the introduction of e-voting in Brazil is highly risky to democracy due to the lack of emphasis on security and the lack of a socially- informed and socially driven approach to technological innovation. The Brazilian example illustrates the democratic implications of a market-driven approach. The lack of a technology strategy designed to promote and extend democratic principles is not surprising given the closed door, market-based negotiations that led to the adoption of e-voting in Brazil. The promise, and indeed, the imperative of a democratic, voter-centered approach as an alternative for the development of an electronic voting system, is explored in the paper.
- KonferenzbeitragContributions to traditional electronic voting systems in order to reinforce citizen confidence(Electronic Voting 2006 – 2nd International Workshop, Co-organized by Council of Europe, ESF TED, IFIP WG 8.6 and E-Voting.CC, 2006) Gómez Olivia, Ana; Sánchez Garcia, Sergio; Pérez Belleboni, Emilia; Krimmer, RobertThis document provides a general description of the telematic voting scenario designed by the author's research group. This scenario reinforces verification procedures as key elements to achieve full acceptance of the system on the part of voters. To frame this work, a general overview of electronic voting is given and the conditions entailed by these systems are specified.
- KonferenzbeitragA preliminary question: Is e-voting actually useful for our democratic institutions? What do we need Itô for?(Electronic Voting 2006 – 2nd International Workshop, Co-organized by Council of Europe, ESF TED, IFIP WG 8.6 and E-Voting.CC, 2006) Barrat Esteve, Jordi; Krimmer, RobertThe current development of e-voting systems worldwide raises several specific interesting issues from a legal point of view. Auditability measures, identification procedures or guarantees for voting secrecy and equality are good examples, but we often forget a fundamental question: the usefulness of these new technologies. This paper intends to provide an answer that takes into account the complexity of all democratic systems. An updated image of the electoral procedures, the advantages for disabled people, the reduction of economic charges in the electoral fields or the increase of voting turnout will be analysed as the possible positive consequences of e-voting systems.
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- KonferenzbeitragHow e-voting technology challenges traditional concepts of citizenship: An analysis of French voting rituals(Electronic Voting 2006 – 2nd International Workshop, Co-organized by Council of Europe, ESF TED, IFIP WG 8.6 and E-Voting.CC, 2006) Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Krimmer, RobertThis paper describes the direct relationship between the perception of citizenship and its material expression, with emphasis on how changing expression obliges a rethink of the channels of mediation between citizens and their elected leaders. An analysis of the French voting ritual will show how our voting system is embedded in a specific cultural conception of citizenship . The emergence of new voting procedures could then be analysed on a social point of view as the will for citizens to rejuvenate some ancient conception of citizenship. I propose a table which maps out the connection between citizenship models and their new technological materialization. A two-way flow of creativity between models and tools which broadens scope for grassroots participation then explains the creation of new rituals as well as the reframing of the role of existing rituals.
- KonferenzbeitragE-voting in Slovenia: The view of parliamentary deputies(Electronic Voting 2006 – 2nd International Workshop, Co-organized by Council of Europe, ESF TED, IFIP WG 8.6 and E-Voting.CC, 2006) Jukić, Tina; Vintar, Mirko; Krimmer, RobertThe paper presents the results of the research, focused on Slovenian parliamentary deputies' position on e-democracy with the stress on remote e- voting. It examines the difference in the position on e-democracy and e-voting of deputies aligned with the political right and left respectively. Furthermore, it considers deputies' attitude to the initiatives mediated via e-mail and assesses the risks and impact that the deputies see in e-voting. They were asked to what level they supported the implementation of e-voting and when, in their opinion, Slovenia would start e-voting tests. Finally the authors indicate the most interesting findings of the survey.
- KonferenzbeitragOnline voting project – New developments in the voting system and consequently implemented improvement in the representation of legal principles(Electronic Voting 2006 – 2nd International Workshop, Co-organized by Council of Europe, ESF TED, IFIP WG 8.6 and E-Voting.CC, 2006) Diehl, Klaus; Weddeling, Sonja; Krimmer, RobertFor several years, T-Systems Enterprise Services GmbH has been researching the creation of a highly secure voting system that meets the latest cryptological standards. With exclusive responsibility for the W.I.E.N (Wählen in elektronischen Netzwerken, Voting in electronic networks) research project supported by the government since 2005, T-Systems are studying the implementation of online voting in non-parliamentary elections. The voting system previously designed in this project was subjected to a thorough review by a renowned cryptologist from a German university in the summer of 2005. Some encryption processes were then modified, resulting in a highly secure voting protocol with the provisional working title of t-voting, which is simpler and quicker to implement. By adding important new steps within the core architecture, the strenuously disputed claims to the publicness of voting and its transparency are demonstrated. A public notice displayed on the bulletin board gives voters an overview of votes cast. Considering that online voting is seen as an alternative to postal voting, this actually increases the element of being "public". The principle of universality is augmented in online voting as the access options are simplified, which means that more voters can participate in the election.