- ZeitschriftenartikelMultiscreen Patterns – Interactions Across the Borders of Devices(i-com: Vol. 17, No. 1, 2018) Madden, Dominick; Schneider, Horst; Kohler, KirstinDesign patterns are solutions for common design problems used in a number of fields including architecture, software development and user experience design. We compiled a pattern library for the usage of gesture-enabled interactions between different devices with screens, the so called multiscreen context. This library provides simple and intuitive gestures for connecting and disconnecting devices wirelessly as well as gestures for the exchange of data between these devices, like swiping a document from one’s tablet to the tablets of the surrounding colleagues in the same room. The library is the result of a 2.5 years running project in cooperation with three small and medium companies. We compiled the library by conducting an intense literature survey in parallel with several iterations of practical software projects in the multiscreen context. The literature survey inspired the practice-oriented project work. Being involved in software projects enabled us to identify challenges in the design and implementation of the gesture set. Therefore, we generated valuable insight for a comprehensive description of gestural interactions. With our set of patterns, we aim to support interaction designers to choose the appropriate gesture for their given context. The patterns serve as inspiration by showing the different possibilities but also provide guidance how to design and implement a selected gesture for a given context. They help designing the details of an interaction by breaking it down into its smallest parts. To support the developers of these interactions our pattern descriptions are enriched with an Android library containing lifecycle events and the necessary gesture recognition logic. This paper provides an overview of the pattern library. In addition, the structure and the usage of the library is described in more detail with the means of one sample pattern. The pattern library is openly accessible.
- ZeitschriftenartikelTrust in Automated Vehicles(i-com: Vol. 17, No. 1, 2018) Mirnig, Alexander G.; Trösterer, Sandra; Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Gärtner, Magdalena; Tscheligi, ManfredIncreasing degrees of automation in on-road vehicles bear great potential for heightened driver safety and traffic efficiency in both the near and far future. The more the driver delegates control to the vehicle, the more salient the issue of trust in automated technology becomes. Misaligned trust can lead to mishandling of automation controls in individual instances and decreases the general acceptance of on-road automation on a broader scale. In this paper, we apply insights from trust research for dynamic web service interaction to the novel automated driving domain, in order to scope the problem space regarding trust in automated vehicles. We conclude that the appropriate communication of trustworthiness, the necessity to calibrate trust, the importance of intervention capabilities by the driver, and the unambiguous transparency of locus of control are all important aspects when in comes to understanding trust in automated vehicles.
- ZeitschriftenartikelEditorial(i-com: Vol. 17, No. 1, 2018) Ziegler, Jürgen
- ZeitschriftenartikelFoot Interaction Concepts to Support Radiological Interventions(i-com: Vol. 17, No. 1, 2018) Hatscher, Benjamin; Luz, Maria; Hansen, ChristianDuring neuroradiological interventions, physicians need to interact with medical image data, which cannot be done while the hands are occupied. We propose foot input concepts with one degree of freedom, which matches a common interaction task in the operating room. We conducted a study to compare our concepts in regards to task completion time, subjective workload and user experience. Relative input performed significantly better than absolute or rate-based input. Our findings may enable more effective computer interactions in the operating room and similar domains where the hands are not available.
- ZeitschriftenartikelThe Influence of User Interface Attributes on Aesthetics(i-com: Vol. 17, No. 1, 2018) Schmidt, Thomas; Wolff, ChristianIn this paper we present an empirical study among 40 participants which investigates the relationship between various factors of user interface aesthetics on the one hand, and the influence of the user interface attributes, symmetry, colorfulness as well as visual complexity on user interface aesthetics on the other hand. The user interface aesthetics will be classified in intuitive aesthetics (1st impression with a presentation time of 500 ms) and reflective aesthetics (reflective long-term impression after a longer presentation). Reflective aesthetics is further classified in classical aesthetics (common attractiveness) as well as expressive aesthetics (creativity). For this study we have set up a corpus of 30 websites which are used as stimulus material. In a multi-step lab experiment, participants rate aesthetics and their subjective impression concerning user interface attributes using questionnaires. We are able to show that the intuitive aesthetic judgment correlates strongly with the reflective judgment. The symmetry of a website positively correlates with all definitions of aesthetics, especially with the classical or traditional interpretation in the sense of attractiveness. Visual complexity can be seen as the strongest predictor for the aesthetic judgement of users and it negatively correlates with all definitions. Concerning colorfulness, a preference for websites of a medium degree of colorfulness for the intuitive as well as the classical aesthetics can be stated. Concerning expressive aesthetics, websites of moderate to high colorfulness receive the best judgments. The relationships which we have found are finally discussed in the context of previous research and some implications for future user interface design are given.
- ZeitschriftenartikelGenerating Structured Data by Nontechnical Experts in Research Settings(i-com: Vol. 17, No. 1, 2018) Breitenfeld, Andre; Berger, Florian; Hong, Ming-Tung; Mackeprang, Maximilian; Müller-Birn, ClaudiaSemantic technologies provide meaning to information resources in the form of machine-accessible structured data. Research over the past two decades has commonly focused on tools and interfaces for technical experts, leading to various usability problems regarding users unfamiliar with the underlying technologies – so-called nontechnical experts. Existing approaches to semantic technologies consider mostly consumers of structured data and leave out the creation perspective. In this work, we focus on the usability of creating structured data from textual resources, especially the creation of relations between entities. The research was conducted in collaboration with scholars from the humanities. We review existing research on the usability of semantic technologies and the state of the art of annotation tools to identify shortcomings. Subsequently we use the knowledge gained to propose a new interaction design for the creation of relations between entities to create structured data in the subject-predicate-object form. We implemented our interaction design and conducted a user study which showed that the proposal performed well, making it a contribution to enhance the overall usability in this field. However, this research provides an example of how technically sophisticated technology needs to be “translated” to make it usable for nontechnical experts. We need to extend this perspective in the future by providing more insight into the internal functioning of semantic technologies.
- ZeitschriftenartikelCreation of a Short Version of the User Experience Questionnaire UEQ(i-com: Vol. 17, No. 1, 2018) Alberola, Catherine; Walter, Götz; Brau, HenningThis article focuses on the creation of a short version of the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ). The goal is to reduce the number of 26 items significantly, allowing more efficient measurement of a product’s user experience (UX) while sustaining the high reliability and validity of the original questionnaire. The shortening will be based on a data set from a company in the home appliance industry which included 1534 participants. A reliable short version of the quantitative measuring instrument was developed using factor and reliability analyzes. This new version comprises only 11 items, has a high reliability and covers all dimensions of the original instrument. Correlations between the dimensions of the UX and various questions regarding user satisfaction indicate a high criterion validity of the UEQ short version. This new short version can help prevent participant fatigue during a test session when repeated application of the questionnaire is necessary to account for testing of multiple prototypes.
- ZeitschriftenartikelDesign and Evaluation of a Natural User Interface for Piloting an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(i-com: Vol. 17, No. 1, 2018) Herrmann, Roman; Schmidt, LudgerControlling an unmanned aerial vehicle is challenging and requires an intensive training. One cause is the teleoperation with the conventional input device, the remote control, whose functions are complicate. This paper presents an alternative concept for the teleoperation. Its realization includes a Thalmic Myo gesture control wristlet and a Microsoft HoloLens head-mounted display. These devices are used to implement an augmented reality interface, a tactile feedback and a gesture and speech input. Finally, this implementation has been evaluated with 30 participants and compared with a conventional remote control. The results show that the proposed interface is a good solution but does not reach the performance of the remote control.
- ZeitschriftenartikelWho is the Perfect Match?(i-com: Vol. 17, No. 1, 2018) Bellhäuser, Henrik; Konert, Johannes; Müller, Adrienne; Röpke, RenéUsing digital tools for teaching allows to unburden teachers from organizational load and even provides qualitative improvements that are not achieved in traditional teaching. Algorithmically supported learning group formation aims at optimizing group composition so that each learner can achieve his or her maximum learning gain and learning groups stay stable and productive. Selecting and weighting relevant criteria for learning group formation is an interdisciplinary challenge. This contribution presents the status quo of algorithmic approaches and respective criteria for learning group formation. Based on this theoretical foundation, we describe an empirical study that investigated the influence of distributing two personality traits (conscientiousness and extraversion) either homogeneously or heterogeneously on subjective and objective measures of productivity, time investment, satisfaction, and performance. Results are compared to an earlier study that also included motivation and prior knowledge as criteria. We find both personality traits to enhance group satisfaction and performance when distributed heterogeneously.