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it - Information Technology 59(6) - December 2017

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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Blockchains and the crypto city
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 59, No. 6, 2017) Potts, Jason; Rennie, Ellie; Goldenfein, Jake
    Drawing on economic transaction cost theory, this paper explores how blockchain and distributed ledger technology could shift the smart city agenda by altering transaction costs with implications for the coordination of infrastructures and resources. Like the smart city the crypto city utilizes data informatics, but can be coordinated through distributed rather than centralized systems. The data infrastructure of the crypto city can enable civil society to run local public goods and services, and facilitate economic and social entrepreneurship.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Smart cities, epistemic communities, advocacy coalitions and the 'last mile' problem
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 59, No. 6, 2017) Kitchin, Rob; Coletta, Claudio; Evans, Leighton; Heaphy, Liam; MacDonncha, Darach
    We argue that the ideas, ideals and the rapid proliferation of smart city rhetoric and initiatives globally have been facilitated and promoted by three inter-related communities: (i) `urban technocrats'; (ii) a smart cities `epistemic community'; (iii) a wider `advocacy coalition'. We examine their roles and the multiscale formation, and why despite their influence they encounter a `last mile problem'; that is, smart city initiatives are yet to become fully mainstreamed. We illustrate this last mile problem through a discussion of plans to introduce smart lighting in Dublin.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Efficient implementation of ideal lattice-based cryptography
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 59, No. 6, 2017) Pöppelmann, Thomas
    Almost all practically relevant asymmetric cryptosystems like RSA or ECC are either based on the hardness of factoring or on the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem. However, both problems could be solved efficiently on a large enough quantum computer. While quantum computers powerful enough to break currently used parameter sets are not available yet, they are heavily researched and expected to reach maturity in 15 to 20 years. As a consequence, research on alternative quantum-safe cryptosystems is required. One alternative is lattice-based cryptography which allows the construction of asymmetric public-key encryption and signature schemes that offer a good balance between security, performance, and key as well as ciphertext sizes.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Nonanthropocentric design and smart cities in the anthropocene
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 59, No. 6, 2017) Luusua, Anna; Ylipulli, Johanna; Rönkkö, Emilia
    While the smart city agenda is critiqued for its focus on technology and business led solutions, a new approach to design has been introduced: nonanthropocentric design aims to decenter the human as the focus of design. We build on relevant works in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through discussing and comparing relevant theories in the social sciences and by analyzing design examples. This approach to HCI is necessary if humanity is to meet the challenges of the Anthropocene, the era in which human activity affects the Earth on a geological scale.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    The citizen in the smart city. How the smart city could transform citizenship
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 59, No. 6, 2017) de Waal, Martijn; Dignum, Marloes
    Smart city-policy makers and technology vendors are increasingly stating they want to bring about citizen-centered smart cities. Yet, it often remains unclear what exactly that means, and how citizens are envisaged as actors in smart cities. This article wants to contribute to this discussion by exploring the relation between smart cities and citizenship. It aims to do this by introducing a heuristic scheme that brings out the implied notions of citizenship in three distinct sets of smart city visions and practices: The Control Room envisages the city as a collection of infrastructures and services; The Creative City views the city from the perspective of (economic) geography and ponders on local and regional systems of innovation; The Smart Citizens discourse addresses the city as a political and civic community. These smart city discourses are mapped against two visions on citizenship and governance taken from political philosophy. A `republican' perspective with strong presence in social-democratic countries is contrasted with a libertarian one, most prominent in Silicon Valley approaches to smart city technologies. This provides a scheme to reflect on potential benefits and downsides if a specific smart city discourse would develop. Instances of smart cities may promote notions of citizenship that are based on consumer choice and individual responsibility, alternatively they could also reinforce collective responsibilities towards the common good of society.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    The next urban paradigm: Cohabitation in the smart city
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 59, No. 6, 2017) Foth, Marcus