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it - Information Technology 60(2) - April 2018

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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Tensions in specifying computing curricula for K-12: Towards a principled approach for objectives
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 60, No. 2, 2018) Webb, Mary E.; Bell, Tim; Davis, Niki; Katz, Yaacov J.; Fluck, Andrew; Sysło, Maciej M.; Kalaš, Ivan; Cox, Margaret; Angeli, Charoula; Malyn-Smith, Joyce; Brinda, Torsten; Micheuz, Peter; Brodnik, Andrej
    In this article we examine key issues and tensions for developing and specifying Computing-related elements of curricula design, particularly the role of Computer Science in the curriculum. The article is based on a series of discussions and analyses of curriculum design across various countries with different approaches and traditions of Computing in the curriculum.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Empowering learners with tools in CS education: Physical computing in secondary schools
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 60, No. 2, 2018) Przybylla, Mareen; Romeike, Ralf
    In computer science, computer systems are both, objects of investigation and tools that enable creative learning and design. Tools for learning have a long tradition in computer science education. Already in the late 1960s, Papert developed a concept which had an immense impact on the development of informal education in the following years: his theory of constructionism understands learning as a creative process of knowledge construction that is most effective when learners create something purposeful that they can try out, show around, discuss, analyse and receive praise for. By now, there are numerous learning and programming environments that are based on the constructionist ideas. Modern tools offer opportunities for students to learn in motivating ways and gain impressive results in programming games, animations, implementing 3D models or developing interactive objects. This article gives an overview of computer science education research related to tools and media to be used in educational settings. We analyse different types of tools with a special focus on the categorization and development of tools for student adequate physical computing activities in the classroom. Research around the development and evaluation of tools and learning resources in the domain of physical computing is illustrated with the example of “My Interactive Garden”, a constructionist learning and programming environment. It is explained how the results from empirical studies are integrated in the continuous development of the learning material.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Interacting with personal fabrication devices
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 60, No. 2, 2018) Mueller, Stefanie
    Personal fabrication tools, such as 3D printers, are on the way of enabling a future in which non-technical users will be able to create custom objects. While the hardware is now affordable and the number of people who own a 3D printer is increasing, only few create new 3D models. Most users download models from a 3D model database and after downloading fabricate them on their 3D printers. At most, users adjust a few parameters of the model, such as changing its color or browsing between predetermined shape options. I argue that personal fabrication has the potential for more: Instead of only consuming existing content, I envision a future in which non-technical users will create objects only trained experts can create today. While there are many open challenges for human-computer interaction, such as abstracting away the necessary domain and machine knowledge, I focus on improving the interaction model underlying current personal fabrication devices. In this article, I illustrate why today’s interaction model for personal fabrication tools is not suitable for non-technical users. For this, I draw an analogy to the development of the user interface in personal computing and show how solutions developed by human-computer interaction researchers over the last decades can be applied to this new domain. I analyze the challenges when creating interactive systems for personal fabrication and describe six research prototypes I built to overcome these challenges. I discuss the limitations of these systems and conclude with an overview of recent advancements in personal fabrication that will allow us to go beyond what is possible today.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 60, No. 2, 2018) Frontmatter
    Article Frontmatter was published on April 1, 2018 in the journal it - Information Technology (volume 60, issue 2).
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Computing Education
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 60, No. 2, 2018) Brinda, Torsten
    Article Computing Education was published on April 1, 2018 in the journal it - Information Technology (volume 60, issue 2).
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Computing in the classroom: Tales from the chalkface
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 60, No. 2, 2018) Sentance, Sue; Waite, Jane
    Computing, a broad discipline including computer science, information technology and digital literacy, was introduced as a mandatory national curriculum subject in England in 2014. This meant the introduction of both computer programing and more academic computer science into the curriculum. Such a significant curriculum change involves a period of transition, lasting several years. Here we consider what we have learned about the implementation of the new curriculum, the external influences that have come to bear on teachers’ and pupils’ experiences, and the challenges that are faced.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Instructional methods in computing education judged by computer science teachers and educational experts
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 60, No. 2, 2018) Zendler, Andreas
    Answers to the questions of which instructional methods are suitable for school, what instructional methods should be applied in teaching individual subjects and how instructional methods support the act of learning represent challenges to general education and education in individual subjects. This article focuses on empirical examinations of instructional methods for computer science education supporting knowledge processes in the act of learning and their integration into the context of significant learning theories. The results of this article show that certain instructional methods are especially predestined for computer science education. They can also be attributed to behavioristic, cognitivist and constructivist learning theories; they are thereby localized and can profit from the empirical findings of the learning theories, especially in practical use on teaching computer science.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Erratum to: Design and implementation of a platform for the citizen science project migraine radar
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 60, No. 2, 2018) Wogenstein, Florian; Gaul, Charly; Kropp, Peter; Scheidt, Jörg; Siebenhaar, Yannic; Drescher, Johannes
    Article Erratum to: Design and implementation of a platform for the citizen science project migraine radar was published on April 1, 2018 in the journal it - Information Technology (volume 60, issue 2).
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Object orientation in the literature and in education
    (it - Information Technology: Vol. 60, No. 2, 2018) Berges, Marc
    The efforts around the world – CS4All in the U.S. or Computing At School in Great Britain – show that computing literacy is seen as important. One important part of computer science education deals with learning programming. So, object orientation should be in focus. But what is object orientation? Several different definitions are presented, and a definition of object orientation by its fundamental concepts is introduced. Furthermore, several educational “paradigms” are discussed. Additionally, a choice of object-oriented programming languages is presented. After all that theoretical background, some exemplary implementations of object orientation in national (German) and international curricula are shown. All in all, the article provides a broad overview of the topic of object-oriented programming in computer science education.