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EMISAJ Vol. 13 - 2018

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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    An Approach to Flexible Multilevel Modelling
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 13, Nr. 10, 2018) Macías, Fernando; Rutle, Adrian; Stolz, Volker; Rodriguez-Echeverria, Roberto; Wolter, Uwe
    Multilevel modelling approaches tackle issues related to lack of flexibility and mixed levels of abstraction by providing features like deep modelling and linguistic extension. However, the lack of a clear consensus on fundamental concepts of the paradigm has in turn led to lack of common focus in current multilevel modelling tools and their adoption. In this paper, we propose a formal framework, together with its corresponding tools, to tackle these challenges. The approach facilitates definition of flexible multilevel modelling hierarchies by allowing addition and deletion of intermediate abstraction levels in the hierarchies. Moreover, it facilitates separation of concerns by allowing integration of different multilevel modelling hierarchies as different aspects of the system to be modelled. In addition, our approach facilitates reusability of concepts and their behaviour by allowing definition of flexible transformation rules which are applicable to different hierarchies with a variable number of levels. As a proof of concept, a prototype tool and a domain-specific language for the definition of these rules is provided.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    A Domain-specific Modeling Technique for Value-driven Strategic Sourcing
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 13, Nr. 8, 2018) Rafati, Laleh; Roelens, Ben; Poels, Geert
    Strategic sourcing recognizes that procurement should support a firm’s effort to achieve its long-term objectives. In particular, procurement needs to be a cross-functional end-to-end process inside the organization that is oriented towards value creation within the company and between the company and its partners in the value chain. The main challenge to the implementation of value-driven strategic sourcing is the lack of instruments that are characterized by analytical rigor and robustness in the identification of strategic sourcing options to achieve strategic goals. Therefore, this research aims to develop a domain-specific modeling technique founded on the Service-Dominant Logic which focuses on the systemic exploration of sourcing alternatives and emphasizes the delivery of value to achieve desired outcomes. This paper reports on a first cycle of Design Science Research which includes the demonstration and the evaluation of the value and utility of the modeling artefacts by means of a case study about IT outsourcing in the healthcare industry.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Supporting the Model-Driven Organization Vision through Deep, Orthographic Modeling
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 13, Nr. 7, 2018) Tunjic, Christian; Atkinson, Colin; Draheim, Dirk
    In a model-driven organization, all stakeholders are able to deal with information about an organization in the way that best supports their goals and tasks. In other words, they are able to select models of the organization at the optimal level of abstraction (e.g. platform independent) in the optimal form (e.g. graph-based) and with the optimal scope (e.g. a single component). However, no approach exists today that seamlessly supports this capability over the entire life-cycle of organizations and the IT systems that drive them. Enterprise architecture modeling approaches focus on supporting model-based views of the static architecture of organizations (i.e. enterprises) but generally provide little if any support for operational views. On the other hand, business intelligence approaches focus on providing operational views of organizations and usually do not accommodate static architectural views. In order to fully support the model-driven organization (MDO) vision, therefore, these two worlds need to be unified and a common, natural and uniform approach for defining and supporting all forms of views on organizations, at all stages of their life-cycles, needs to be defined and implemented in an efficient and scalable way. This paper presents a vision for achieving this goal based on the notions of deep and orthographic modeling. After explaining the background to the problem and introducing these two paradigms, the paper presents a novel approach for unifying them, along with a prototype implementation and example.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Semantic Annotations of Enterprise Models for Supporting the Evolution of Model-Driven Organizations
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 13, Nr. 5, 2018) Fill, Hans-Georg
    In model-driven organizations enterprise models are used to represent and analyze the current and future states of aspects such as strategies, business processes or the enterprise architecture. Thereby, the scope of representation and analysis depends on the used modeling method. Although adaptations of modeling methods are frequently conducted to meet requirements emerging from business changes, such modifications may not be favorable due to potential side effects on other enterprise systems, e.g. through inconsistencies with existing standards and resulting conflicts in algorithmic processing. In the paper at hand we therefore propose the use of semantic annotations of enterprise models for dynamically extending the representation and analysis scope of enterprise modeling methods. Through a loose-coupling between enterprise models and formal semantic schemata, additional information can be represented and processed by algorithms without changes in the original modeling language. In this way, the evolution of information requirements of an organization can be satisfied while maintaining the consistency of the used enterprise modeling languages. For illustrating the feasibility of the approach we describe a use case from the area of risk management. The use case is realized using the SeMFIS platform that supports the annotation of enterprise models and the subsequent machine-based analysis of annotations.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Towards Improved Organisational Decision-Making – A Method and Tool-chain
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 13, Nr. 6, 2018) Barat, Souvik; Kulkarni, Vinay; Barn, Balbir
    Modern enterprises are large complex systems operating in an increasingly dynamic environment and are tasked to meet organisational goals by adopting suitable course of actions or means. This calls for deep understanding of the enterprise, the operating environment, and the change drivers reactive as well as proactive. Traditionally, enterprises have been relying on human experts to perform these activities. However, the sole reliance on humans for decision making is increasingly unviable given the large size of modern enterprises, fast dynamics, and the prohibitively high cost of incorrect decisions. To address this challenge, we propose a method that leverages existing enterprise modelling (EM) tools to improve the agility of organisational decision-making as well as reducing the analysis burden on human experts. The proposed method artifact employs a design science research methodology and the method is validated using a realistic industrial case to bring out its strengths as well as limitations.
  • Journal Editorial
    Introduction to the Special Issue on Model-Driven Organisations
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 13, Nr. 3, 2018) Clark, Tony
    Modern organisations are faced with the very challenging problem of rapidly responding to continual external business pressures in order to sustain their competitiveness or to effectively perform mission-critical services. Difficulties arise because the continual evolution of systems and operational procedures that are performed in response to external pressures eventually lead to suboptimal configurations of systems and processes that drive the organisation.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Capability-based Communication Analysis for Enterprise Modelling
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 13, Nr. 4, 2018) Pastor, Oscar; Ruiz, Marcela; Koç, Hasan; Valverde, Francisco
    Capability-oriented enterprise modelling can provide effective solutions to face changing business context. In the business domain, the notion of capability has gained a lot of attention since it guides the activities of service specification and design. Simultaneously, the research community has been promoting the integration of model-driven development (MDD) approaches with enterprise modelling to support the link between enterprise and software specifications. This integration has becoming vital to ensure the traceability of enterprise models and software implementations, acceleration of software time to market, quality assurance, and enterprise model evolution support. The capability-driven development (CDD) method has been recently developed and applied in various industrial use cases. But, the link between the CDD method and strong funded MDD approaches has not been explored. In this paper we explore the integration of the CDD method with the Communication Analysis method (a communication-oriented business process modelling method), which is supported by means of MDD frameworks. Among the advantages to add the communicational perspective to the CDD method, we want to highlight the possibility to offer a high level analysis of business process models that focus on the communications between different organisational actors, as so as to offer further transformation facilities into software components. With this integration, we give the first steps to offer automation facilities to capability-driven environments.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    What we know and what we do not know about DMN
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 13, Nr. 2, 2018) Figl, Kathrin; Mendling, Jan; Tokdemir, Gul; Vanthienen, Jan
    The recent Decision Model and Notation (DMN) establishes business decisions as first-class citizens of executable business processes. This research note has two objectives: first, to describe DMN's technical and theoretical foundations; second, to identify research directions for investigating DMN's potential benefits on a technological, individual and organizational level. To this end, we integrate perspectives from management science, cognitive theory and information systems research.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    The Next Generation – Design and Implementation of a Smart Glasses-based Modelling System
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 13, Nr. 18, 2018) Metzger, Dirk; Niemöller, Christina; Jannaber, Sven; Berkemeier, Lisa; Brenning, Lukas; Thomas, Oliver
    Technical services in innovative business models are becoming increasingly complex. Thus, comprehensive IT-support is crucial for service delivery. Content for those IT-support systems is captured by modelling relevant service processes. Aside the intangibility and integrativity, services are characterized by the complexity of their structure. So, the traditional modelling approaches executed by modelling experts are challenging. To overcome those challenges, we developed a concept to model service processes at the point-of-service while executing the service itself. The process executer (e. g. the technician) is empowered by smart glasses that do not limit his scope of actions. Additionally, the glasses guide through the (runtime) modelling and allow easy capturing of service processes during the execution. We followed a design science-oriented approach. First, we identified relevant process blocks from literature for runtime modelling (analysis). Afterwards, we built related software components for the process blocks (design). We do so by proposing an implementation and an architecture for a smart glasses-based modelling system. Finally, we evaluated the concept by prototyping and demonstrating the system by means of a real-world service process (evaluation). Our approach tackles challenges on how new technology can enhance the modelling at the point-of-service, which process blocks are relevant and how domain experts can be integrated into the modelling process itself. The practical implications are towards new chances of capturing processes.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Modelling of a Smart Service for Consumables Replenishment – A Life Cycle Perspective
    (Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (EMISAJ) – International Journal of Conceptual Modeling: Vol. 13, Nr. 17, 2018) Anke, Jürgen; Wellsandt, Stefan; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter
    Smart services are an approach for the IT-supported provision of services based on networked products. They enable new relationships between manufacturers and end users, as well as the establishment of new value-creation networks. To gain benefits from these potentials, service providers face the challenges of designing and managing smart services. This is mainly due to the complexity of the underlying cyber-physical system (CPS) as well as the individual life cycles of components and third-party services it consists of. Additionally, a number of actors and their tasks, various tangible and intangible benefits, as well as flows of material, information and money need to be considered during the planning and provisioning of the service. In this paper, we investigate the potential of modelling smart services with the Lifecycle Modeling Language (LML). To this end, we analyse the fulfillment of information need of different stakeholders based on a consumable material replenishment service for 3D printers.