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Künstliche Intelligenz 24(4) - November 2010

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  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010)
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Approaching Manual Intelligence
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010) Maycock, Jonathan; Dornbusch, Daniel; Elbrechter, Christof; Haschke, Robert; Schack, Thomas; Ritter, Helge
    Grasping and manual interaction for robots so far has largely been approached with an emphasis on physics and control aspects. Given the richness of human manual interaction, we argue for the consideration of the wider field of “manual intelligence” as a perspective for manual action research that brings the cognitive nature of human manual skills to the foreground. We briefly sketch part of a research agenda along these lines, argue for the creation of a manual interaction database as an important cornerstone of such an agenda, and describe the manual interaction lab recently set up at CITEC to realize this goal and to connect the efforts of robotics and cognitive science researchers towards making progress for a more integrated understanding of manual intelligence.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Automated Enactment Tracking for Dynamic Workflows
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010) Sauer, Thomas
    The notion of workflows is an established concept to coordinate the activities within an organization. However, human workflow participants typically have to explicitly report the steps taken, limiting acceptance and effectiveness of workflow technology. In the presented PhD thesis, the novel approach of automated enactment tracking is introduced to overcome this problem. Using a Multi-Agent System, the data produced during everyday activities is evaluated in a robust and flexible manner. The system applies Case-Base Reasoning to identify the tasks performed, following the principle that similar tasks produce similar data. Agents further collaborate with each other to identify processes enacted in parallel, and to compensate for missing or inaccurate information.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    KI im Daten-Tsunami
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010) Bergmann, Ralph
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Learning from Humans—Computational Models of Cognition-Enabled Control of Everyday Activity
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010) Beetz, Michael; Buss, Martin; Radig, Bernd
    In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in the mechatronic, sensing and computational infrastructure of robots, enabling them to act in several application domains faster, stronger and more accurately than humans do. Yet, when it comes to accomplishing manipulation tasks in everyday settings, robots often do not even reach the sophistication and performance of young children. In this article, we describe an interdisciplinary research approach in which we design computational models for controlling robots performing everyday manipulation tasks inspired by the observation of human activities.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Cognition in Manual Assembly
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010) Stork, Sonja; Schubö, Anna
    Manual assembly conducted by skilled human workers is of outstanding relevance for flexible production with high precision. Nevertheless, due to capacity limitations humans need to be supported during the working process in order to reduce mental workload and for enhancement of performance. Cognitive technical systems are able to do so by adapting the process of production to the properties of human cognitive processes which are relevant in manual assembly. During manual assembly tasks workers are confronted with various sources of information and have to switch rapidly between different tasks. The complexity of task execution can be reduced by appropriate information presentation and planning of work steps. Firstly, information processing during the working process can be supported by attentional guidance while reducing search times and accelerating assembly execution. Secondly, as there exist many possible assembly sequences for one product the optimal order of single assembly steps has to be found and interferences from previous task steps have to be minimized. The article describes two scenarios for the investigation of attention allocation as well as for the investigation of task sequences and gives a summary of results achieved so far.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Semantic 3D Object Maps for Everyday Manipulation in Human Living Environments
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010) Rusu, Radu Bogdan
    Environment models serve as important resources for an autonomous robot by providing it with the necessary task-relevant information about its habitat. Their use enables robots to perform their tasks more reliably, flexibly, and efficiently. As autonomous robotic platforms get more sophisticated manipulation capabilities, they also need more expressive and comprehensive environment models: for manipulation purposes their models have to include the objects present in the world, together with their position, form, and other aspects, as well as an interpretation of these objects with respect to the robot tasks.The dissertation presented in this article (Rusu, PhD thesis, 2009) proposes Semantic 3D Object Models as a novel representation of the robot’s operating environment that satisfies these requirements and shows how these models can be automatically acquired from dense 3D range data.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Von kognitiven technischen Systemen zu Companion-Systemen
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010) Biundo, Susanne; Wendemuth, Andreas
    Der Sonderforschungsbereich/Transregio 62 „Eine Companion-Technologie für kognitive technische Systeme“ befasst sich mit der systematischen und interdisziplinären Erforschung kognitiver Fähigkeiten und deren Realisierung in technischen Systemen. Dabei stehen die Eigenschaften der Individualität, Anpassungsfähigkeit, Verfügbarkeit, Kooperativität und Vertrauenswürdigkeit im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Die Realisierung dieser so-genannten Companion-Eigenschaften soll menschlichen Nutzern eine neue – auch emotionale – Dimension des Umgangs mit interaktiven Systemen erschließen, wobei diese als empathische Assistenten wahrgenommen und akzeptiert werden.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Advances in Robot Programming by Demonstration
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010) Dillmann, Rüdiger; Asfour, Tamim; Do, Martin; Jäkel, Rainer; Kasper, Alexander; Azad, Pedram; Ude, Aleš; Schmidt-Rohr, Sven R.; Lösch, Martin
    Robot Programming by Demonstration (PbD) has been dealt with in the literature as a promising way to teach robots new skills in an intuitive way. In this paper we describe our current work in the field toward the implementation of PbD system which allows robots to learn continuously from human observation, build generalized representations of human demonstration and apply such representations to new situations.
  • Zeitschriftenartikel
    Cognitive Interaction Technology
    (KI - Künstliche Intelligenz: Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010) Ritter, Helge
    The coming decade will bring raw processing power and storage capacities of everyday computers to the same level as small brains. Considering this, current interaction technology seems archaic as it still forces humans to follow highly stereotyped, narrow and often error-prone procedures in order to make computers, robots, or other machinery obey them. The vision behind the Excellence Cluster Cognitive Interaction Technology (CITEC) is to develop ways of interacting with technical systems that are as natural and smooth as communication between humans.