- KonferenzbeitragSelf-sovereign identity systems and European data protection regulations: an analysis of roles and responsibilities(Open Identity Summit 2021, 2021) Chomczyk Penedo, Andrés; Roßnagel, Heiko; Schunck, Christian H.; Mödersheim, SebastianDecentralized identity systems have taken a key role in the identity management landscape. Self-sovereign identity management systems have promised to return control over identity to individuals. However, these promises still need to be assessed against the existing regulatory framework. As identity attributes can be considered personal data, rules such as the General Data Protection Regulation are applicable. The existing legal literature has still not delivered an analysis of who is a controller and who is a processor in the context of a self-sovereign identity system for the process of identity creation. As such, the purpose of this contribution is to tackle this challenge.
- KonferenzbeitragFAPI 2.0: A High-Security Profile for OAuth and OpenID Connect(Open Identity Summit 2021, 2021) Fett, Daniel; Roßnagel, Heiko; Schunck, Christian H.; Mödersheim, SebastianA growing number of APIs, from the financial, health and other sectors, give access to highly sensitive data and resources. With the Financial-grade API (FAPI) Security Profile, the OpenID Foundation has created an interoperable and secure standard to protect such APIs. The first version of FAPI has recently become an official standard and has already been adopted by large ecosystems, such as OpenBanking UK. Meanwhile, the OpenID Foundation’s FAPI Working Group has started the work on a the second version of FAPI, putting a focus on robust interoperability, simplicity, a more structured approach to security, and improved non-repudiation. In this paper, we give an overview of the FAPI profiles, discuss the learnings from practice that influence the development of the latest version of FAPI, and show how formal security analysis helps to shape security decisions.
- KonferenzbeitragAdapting the TPL Trust Policy Language for a Self-Sovereign Identity World(Open Identity Summit 2021, 2021) Alber, Lukas; More, Stefan; Mödersheim, Sebastian; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Roßnagel, Heiko; Schunck, Christian H.; Mödersheim, SebastianTrust policies enable the automated processing of trust decisions for electronic transactions. We consider the Trust Policy Language TPL of the LIGHTest project [Mö19] that was designed for businesses and organizations to formulate their trust policies. Using TPL, organizations can decide if and how they want to rely on existing trust schemes like Europe’s eIDAS or trust scheme translations endorsed by them. While the LIGHTest project is geared towards classical approaches like PKI-based trust infrastructures and X.509 certificates, novel concepts are on the rise: one example is the self-sovereign identity (SSI) model that enables users better control of their credentials, offers more privacy, and supports decentralized solutions. Since SSI is based on distributed ledger (DL) technology, it is a question of how TPL can be adapted so that organizations can continue to enjoy the benefits of flexible policy descriptions with automated evaluation at a very high level of reliability. Our contribution is a first step towards integrating SSI and the interaction with a DL into a Trust Policy Language. We discuss this on a more conceptual level and also show required TPL modifications. We demonstrate that we can integrate SSI concepts into TPL without changing the syntax and semantics of TPL itself and have to add new formats and introduce a new built-in predicate for interacting with the DL. Another advantage of this is that the “business logic” aspect of a policy does not need to change, enable re-use of existing policies with the new trust model.
- KonferenzbeitragOpen Identity Summit 2021 - Complete Volume(Open Identity Summit 2021, 2021) Roßnagel, Heiko; Schunck, Christian H.; Mödersheim, Sebastian
- KonferenzbeitragEvaluation of Account Recovery Strategies with FIDO2-based Passwordless Authentication(Open Identity Summit 2021, 2021) Kunke, Johannes; Wiefling, Stephan; Ullmann, Markus; Lo Iacono, Luigi; Roßnagel, Heiko; Schunck, Christian H.; Mödersheim, SebastianThreats to passwords are still very relevant due to attacks like phishing or credential stuffing. One way to solve this problem is to remove passwords completely. User studies on passwordless FIDO2 authentication using security tokens demonstrated the potential to replace passwords. However, widespread acceptance of FIDO2 depends, among other things, on how user accounts can be recovered when the security token becomes permanently unavailable. For this reason, we provide a heuristic evaluation of 12 account recovery mechanisms regarding their properties for FIDO2 passwordless authentication. Our results show that the currently used methods have many drawbacks. Some even rely on passwords, taking passwordless authentication ad absurdum. Still, our evaluation identifies promising account recovery solutions and provides recommendations for further studies.
- KonferenzbeitragTowards the COSCA framework for “COnseptualing Secure CArs”.(Open Identity Summit 2021, 2021) Bella, Giampaolo; Biondi, Pietro; Costantino, Gianpiero; Matteucci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Mirco; Roßnagel, Heiko; Schunck, Christian H.; Mödersheim, SebastianCyber risks associated with modern cars are often referred to safety. However, modern cars expose a variety of digital services and process a variety of personal data, at least of the driver’s. This paper unfolds the argument that car (cyber-)security and drivers’ privacy are worthy of additional consideration, and does so by advancing “COSCA”, a framework for “COnceptualising Secure CArs” as interconnected nodes of the Next Generation Internet. COSCA adopts an innovative socio-technical approach. It crowdsources drivers’ perceptions on core privacy topics and it classifies the data collected by cars and processed by manufacturers pursuant the General Data Protection Regulation. These steps inform a risk assessment which highlights the more relevant mitigation strategies and cyber security technologies. Finally, COSCA aims at designing novel interfaces to enable drivers to exercise their rights about personal data collection and processing.
- KonferenzbeitragDecentralized Identities for Self-sovereign End-users (DISSENS)(Open Identity Summit 2021, 2021) Schanzenbach,Martin; Grothoff, Christian; Wenger, Hansjürg; Kaul, Maximilian; Roßnagel, Heiko; Schunck, Christian H.; Mödersheim, SebastianThis paper describes a comprehensive architecture and reference implementation for privacy-preserving identity management that bucks the trend towards centralization present in contemporary proposals. DISSENS integrates a technology stack which combines privacy-friendly online payments with self-sovereign personal data management using a decentralized directory service. This enables users to be in complete control of their digital identity and personal information while at the same time being able to selectively share information necessary to easily use commercial services. Our pilot demonstrates the viability of a sustainable, user-centric, standards-compliant and accessible use case for public service employees and students in the domain of retail e-commerce. We leverage innovative technologies including self-sovereign identity, privacy credentials, and privacy-friendly digital payments in combination with established standards to provide easy-to-adapt templates for the integration of various scenarios and use cases.
- KonferenzbeitragHow Quantum Computers threat security of PKIs and thus eIDs(Open Identity Summit 2021, 2021) Vogt, Sebastian; Funke, Holger; Roßnagel, Heiko; Schunck, Christian H.; Mödersheim, SebastianQuantum computers threaten the security of asymmetric cryptography and thus the heart of a PKI - used for example to protect electronic data in passports. On the one hand, there are already promising candidates for post-quantum secure algorithms, but these also have disadvantages (stateful and / or with significantly larger public keys or signatures). On the other hand, there are some application areas for which a PKI should use post-quantum secure procedures as soon as possible. What is the situation regarding PQC in the market for secure, electronic identification (e.g. electronic travel documents)? What needs to be done to prepare electronic travel documents for a post-quantum world?
- KonferenzbeitragA lightweight trust management infrastructure for self-sovereign identity(Open Identity Summit 2021, 2021) Kubach, Michael; Roßnagel, Heiko; Roßnagel, Heiko; Schunck, Christian H.; Mödersheim, SebastianDecentralized approaches towards digital identity management, often summarized under the currently popular term Self-sovereign identity (SSI) are being associated with high hopes for a bright future of identity management (IdM). Numerous private, open source as well as publicly funded research initiatives pursue this approach with the aim to finally bring universally usable, trustworthy, interoperable, secure, and privacy friendly digital identities for everyone and all use cases. However, a major challenge that so far has been only rudimentary addressed, is the trust management in these decentralized identity ecosystems. This paper first elaborates this problem before presenting an approach for a trust management infrastructure in SSI ecosystems that is based on already completed work for trust management in digital transactions.
- KonferenzbeitragDAMA – A transparent meta-assistant for data self-determination in smart environments(Open Identity Summit 2021, 2021) Ruff, Christopher; Horch, Andrea; Benthien, Benedict; Loh, Wulf; Orlowski, Alexander; Roßnagel, Heiko; Schunck, Christian H.; Mödersheim, SebastianGlobal sales of AI-based smart voice assistants and other smart devices are increasing every year. Smart devices are becoming ubiquitous, including living and workspaces. These spaces often have very high privacy requirements, like living rooms, bedrooms or meeting rooms in office environments. Users of smart devices have security and privacy concerns regarding personal data collection, data storage and the use of such data by the devices and the providers. These concerns are aggravated by a lack of transparency by the device manufacturers. As a result, users have limited possibilities to make an informed decision due to missing information or interfaces. While this leads to limited trust regarding the security and privacy of smart devices, for most users, the practical benefit dominates. The project DAMA wants to address user’s security and privacy concerns by creating transparency and regulating the smart devices in connection with the respective context (e.g. when users are alone at home or when they have visitors). For this purpose, the project is developing a “meta-assistant”, an assistant that regulates other AI-based assistants and other smart devices. It uses artificial intelligence (AI) for context detection and device regulation. The regulation processes are based on established ethical guidelines, which are adjusted to the project context.