- KonferenzbeitragRealisierung der grafischen Modellierungsmethode Dynamic Relations für zeitreihenbasierte Modelle mit EXTEND(Umweltinformatik ’99 - Umweltinformatik zwischen Theorie und Industrieanwendung, 1999) Klinger, Dietmar; Page, Bernd; Wohlgemuth, Volker; Rautenstrauch, Claus; Schenk, MichaelDieser Beitrag beschreibt die Implementation einer grafischen Modellierungsmethode für zeitreihenbasierte Modelle für die Verkehrsemissionsmodellierung mit dem Simulationswerkzeug EXTEND. Es wird zunächst der Modellierungsansatz vorgestellt. Im Anschluß hieran skizzieren wir die grundsätzlichen Merkmale des offenen Simulationssystems EXTEND. Abschließend wird die Implementation der beschriebenen Modellierungsmethodik mit EXTEND beschrieben und die Vorteile der Verwendung eines offenen Simulationswerkzeuges in diesem Anwendungsbereich aufgezählt.
- KonferenzbeitragSemantic Navigation Maps for Information Agents in Environment Information Systems(Umweltinformatik ’99 - Umweltinformatik zwischen Theorie und Industrieanwendung, 1999) Benn, Wolfgang; Beyrich, Günther; Görlitz, Otmar; Rautenstrauch, Claus; Schenk, MichaelThe automated retrieval of information in Environment Information Systems by information agents is severely hindered by the heterogeneity of these systems. For the decision if an information is a relevant answer to a query, information agents need to understand semantics and context of the query. In this paper we propose our concept of describing and exploiting contextual relations in the domain of environment information on the base of Kohonen’s self-organizing feature maps. We apply this concept for the automated semantic classification of query results into an existing knowledge space. Using this technique, information agents can be endowed with domain knowledge. Thus they are enabled to retrieve information in heterogeneous Environment Information Systems matching the context of the query.
- KonferenzbeitragDeveloping the CLEAN Model: a Tool to Evaluate Policy Options for Reduction of Mineral surplus, Ammonia Emissions to Air and Nitrogen and Phosphate Emissions to soil(Umweltinformatik ’99 - Umweltinformatik zwischen Theorie und Industrieanwendung, 1999) Knol, Onno M.; Rautenstrauch, Claus; Schenk, MichaelAgriculture in the Netherlands produces high emissions of minerals to soil and ammonia to air, which cause environmental problems. The CLEAN model is a tool to evaluate policy options to reduce these problems. An overview of the model is presented and the difficulties in calculating manure surpluses and manure destinations are highlighted. To fulfil its purpose the model needs to be rather detailed, use large amounts of data, be fast, and produce reliable results. The model concepts and information technology that were chosen to meet these requirements are discussed. Special attention is paid to the position of the model in a larger information system and the use of a relational database. The development of this environmental information system will be evaluated and based on this experience, some remarks will be made on model integration.
- KonferenzbeitragParallel Approach to the Simulation Of Forest Fire Propagation(Umweltinformatik ’99 - Umweltinformatik zwischen Theorie und Industrieanwendung, 1999) Jorba, Josep; Margalef, Tomas; Luque, Emilio; da Silva André, Jorge Campos; Viegas, Domingos Xavier; Rautenstrauch, Claus; Schenk, MichaelForest fire is one of the most critical environmental risks in all the Mediterranean Countries. The fight against these emergencies requires useful tools to predict the propagation and behaviour of forest fire in order to take the best decisions. It means it is necessary to know the propagation and behaviour of the forest fire in advance to act in the best possible way. However, this is a complex problem that requires high performance computing capabilities to provide accurate results faster than real time. High performance computing, mainly parallel and distributed systems, provide the computing capabilities to solve this problem in a reasonable time. In this work we present a parallel approach to simulate the forest fire propagation.
- KonferenzbeitragEntwicklung eines Instrumentariums zur Analyse überbetrieblicher Energiemanagementkonzepte(Umweltinformatik ’99 - Umweltinformatik zwischen Theorie und Industrieanwendung, 1999) Frank, Michael; Fichtner, Wolf; Wietschel, Martin; Rentz, Otto; Rautenstrauch, Claus; Schenk, Michael
- KonferenzbeitragMortalitätsschätzungen in ungleichaltrigen Fichtenwäldern mit Hilfe Neuronaler Netze(Umweltinformatik ’99 - Umweltinformatik zwischen Theorie und Industrieanwendung, 1999) Hasenauer, Hubert; Merkl, Dieter; Rautenstrauch, Claus; Schenk, MichaelWithin forest growth modeling it is understood that individual tree mortality can be captured realistically by relating the average rate of mortality to a few reliable and measurable size or site characteristics using a LOGIT model. In this paper we describe the application of neuronal networks adhering to the unsupervised learning paradigm to predict individual tree mortality. Using the large and representative Norway spruce data sample from the Austrian National Forest Inventory, we train different types of neural network architectures, namely Multi-Layer Perceptron, Cascade Correlation, and Learning Vector Quantization. For training, we use the following learning rules: Error Backpropagation, Resilient Propagation, and Scaled Conjugate Gradient. With an independent data set we evaluate the neural network types to predict individual tree mortality.
- KonferenzbeitragConceptual Framework of a Data Warehouse for the Nationalpark Hohe Tauern(Umweltinformatik ’99 - Umweltinformatik zwischen Theorie und Industrieanwendung, 1999) Hasenauer, Hubert; Haslik, Ingrid; Rosenthaler, Roman; Pernul, Günther; Stangl, Dietmar; Rautenstrauch, Claus; Schenk, MichaelDie Arbeit stellt ein Data Warehouse Konzepte für die Datenorganisation in einem Nationalpark vor. Die darauf aufbauende Implementierung eines Prototypen mit Hilfe des Universal Server 9.12 von INFORMIX zeigt die Anbindung an das Internet und diskutiert die daraus entstehenden Vorteile.
- KonferenzbeitragA Knowledgebase system approach — Integrated Assessment of Mechanised Harvesting Operation on Forest Environment(Umweltinformatik ’99 - Umweltinformatik zwischen Theorie und Industrieanwendung, 1999) Zhangren, Lan; Rautenstrauch, Claus; Schenk, MichaelDue to rapidly increasing mechanised timber harvesting operation in commercial forest, new and increasing pressures are being brought to bear on environment issues. Estimating the environmental risk of timber harvesting operations plays an important role in selecting suitable machines of harvesting system on wood procurement chain in environmental-oriented procedure. It is obvious that main impacts of harvesting operations concentrate on the soil compaction, site disturbances and biological damage. From the view point of pre-operational damage risk evaluation, the relevance of soil compaction and other consequences derived from harvesting operation is not directly from the results of associated changes of the soil properties but rather from the environmental and technical parameters of harvesting machine which are defined in the methods of harvesting with specific operational modes and type of machine. In this paper, a knowledge-base system (KBS) approach in co-operation with a fuzzy integrated assessment was developed for pre-operational evaluation of timber harvesting activities. The critical factors concerning the damage risk of harvesting operations to forest target area were extracted, evaluated, weighted and encoded into the knowledge-base system based on topographical conditions of forest area, machine parameters, harvesting system types and so on concerning harvesting operation as following: • Ground slopes and slope capacity of machine: ground slope is one of the critical factors that identify the operability of individual machine and harvesting system in a give condition. The slope capacity of machine to some extent means for machine to be operated efficiently at the productivity, cost, and less impacts of operations. • Soil condition and ground strength: the soil characteristic is a main factor for defining the trafficability of the machine and risk of various damages to the soil at the time of traffic. Generally, ground conditions worsen, wider range of machine traffic capacity should be taken into consideration for the choice of machines and their equipment. • Logging patterns and machine size: machine size to a large extent identifies the ground pressure of machine and risks of various damages to the soil and remaining trees in thinning operation. Defining the parameters of machine size could induce the extent of environmental consequence dominating concerns of damage to soil and remaining trees in given logging pattern. • Harvesting method and machine types: three types of harvesting system, i.e. cut-to-length, tree-length, and whole tree system corresponding to harvesting methods and machines applied determine the types and extent of environmental consequences, which are indicated by the machine performance varying with the logging patterns from thinning to final cutting. • Machine productivity and operating cost: there might be some extent of conflict among the machine productivity, costs effectiveness and forest damage risk. Machine to be operated in the most-efficient way implies larger machine employed and less restricted impact of harvesting operation. There might be a compromise required between maximising financial benefit and minimising site damage. • Operational modes: harvesting and forwarding with the crane work operated at wider spacing cause much of damage to trees; direct dragging and winching are often more dangerous for the standing trees; skidding and feller-bunching will disturb more area, incurring more damage risk to stands. • Ground pressure of harvesting machine: maximum site protection would require low ground pressure. Machinery with low ground pressure could greatly reduce the extent of damage to the forest floor. • Tyre types and tracks: the extensive disturbance indicated with the rut depth depends strongly upon the types, size and inflation pressure of tyres besides the ground pressure of machine. Wider tyres or tracks facilitate efficiently to reduce soil damage and rut depth. The values of those variables concerning forest machine performance and environmental parameters are converted into a scaling system in numerical way. Fuzzy method involved in pre-operational evaluation of timber harvesting is employed to integrating assessment and analysis based on critical factors and machine performance level indicated with index method of harvesting operation. The purpose of KBS is to provide the knowledge that can evaluate environmental issues, and interpret its generated output. In the case of the machine pre-operational assessment, potential risk of harvesting operations is primary goal to be specified through the inference engine of knowledge-base system. Further more, the management objective of timber harvesting operations will be reached by examining rules and executing special 483 search, which then provided the recommendations for suitable choice of sound environmental harvesting machines. The window-based application of pre-operational evaluation system was built with Borland Delphi development tool. Friendly user interface environment is suitable for users to control data input and output. The output data could be extended to various kinds of timber harvesting planning and management of environment-oriented procedure at company level.
- KonferenzbeitragEPSILON – Ein System zur Unterstützung einer umweltorientierten Planung in Unternehmensnetzwerken(Umweltinformatik ’99 - Umweltinformatik zwischen Theorie und Industrieanwendung, 1999) Jürgens, Gunnar; Schnapperelle, Dirk; von Steinaecker, Jörg; Rautenstrauch, Claus; Schenk, MichaelDue to the growing tendency of industrial companies to create national and international co operations with a network character, environmental planning in logistical networks is of growing importance. The requirements on environmental data in this context makes it a challenge for the development of appropriate Industrial Environmental Information Systems (IEIS). The EU-project EPSILON is aimed to develop a toolset to support environmental management in logistical networks.
- KonferenzbeitragAUDIS: Informations und Managementsystem für den betrieblichen Arbeits und Umweltschutz(Umweltinformatik ’99 - Umweltinformatik zwischen Theorie und Industrieanwendung, 1999) Hagel, Harald; Chudalla, Andreas; Rautenstrauch, Claus; Schenk, Michael