MCI Dissertationen (Open Access)

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  • Dissertation
    A European Perspective on Crisis Informatics: Citizens’ and Authorities’ Attitudes Towards Social Media for Public Safety and Security
    (2022) Reuter, Christian
    Mobilising helpers in the event of a flood or letting friends know that you are okay in the event of a terrorist attack – more and more people are using social media in emergency, crisis or disaster situations. Storms, floods, attacks or pandemics (esp. COVID-19) show that citizens use social media to inform themselves or to coordinate. This book presents qualitative and quantitative studies on the attitudes of emergency services and citizens in Europe towards social media in emergencies. Across the individual sub-studies, almost 10,000 people are surveyed including representative studies in the Netherlands, Germany, the UK and Italy. The work empirically shows that social media is increasingly important for emergency services, both for prevention and during crises; that private use of social media is a driving force in shaping opinions for organisational use; and that citizens have high expectations towards authorities, especially monitoring social media is expected, and sometimes responses within one hour. Depending on the risk culture, the data show further differences, e.g. whether the state (Germany) or the individual (Netherlands) is seen as primarily responsible for coping with the situation.
  • Dissertation
    Affective automotive user interfaces
    (2020) Braun, Michael
    Technological progress in the fields of ubiquitous sensing and machine learning has been fueling the development of user-aware human-computer interaction in recent years. Especially natural user interfaces, like digital voice assistants, can benefit from understanding their users in order to provide a more naturalistic experience. Such systems can, for example, detect the emotional state of users and accordingly act in an empathic way. One major research field working on this topic is Affective Computing, where psycho-physiological measures, speech input, and facial expressions are used to sense human emotions. Affective data allows natural user interfaces to respond to emotions, providing promising perspectives not only for user experience design but also for safety aspects. In automotive environments, informed estimations of the driver’s state can potentially avoid dangerous errors and evoking positive emotions can improve the experience of driving. This dissertation explores Affective Automotive User Interfaces using two basic interaction paradigms: firstly, emotion regulation systems react to the current emotional state of the user based on live sensing data, allowing for quick interventions. Secondly, emotional interaction synthesizes experiences which resonate with the user on an emotional level. The constituted goals of these two interaction approaches are the promotion of safe behavior and an improvement of user experience. Promoting safe behavior through emotion regulation: Systems which detect and react to the driver’s state are expected to have great potential for improving road safety. This work presents a model and methods needed to investigate such systems and an exploration of several approaches to keep the driver in a safe state. The presented methods include techniques to induce emotions and to sample the emotional state of drivers. Three driving simulator studies investigate the impacts of emotionaware interventions in the form of implicit cues, visual mirroring and empathic speech synthesis. We envision emotion-awareness as a safety feature which can detect if a driver is unfit or in need of support, based on the propagation of robust emotion detection technology. Improving user experience with emotional interaction: Emotional perception is an essential part of user experience. This thesis entails methods to build emotional experiences derived from a variety of lab and simulator studies, expert feedback, car-storming sessions and design thinking workshops. Systems capable of adapting to the user’s preferences and traits in order to create an emotionally satisfactory user experience do not require the input of emotion detection. They rather create value through general knowledge about the user by adapting the output they generate. During this research, cultural and generational influences became evident, which have to be considered when implementing affective automotive user interfaces in future cars. We argue that the future of user-aware interaction lies in adapting not only to the driver’s preferences and settings but also to their current state. This paves the way for the regulation of safe behavior, especially in safety-critical environments like cars, and an improvement of the driving experience.
  • Dissertation
    Designing communication technologies based on physiological sensing
    (2018) Hassib, Mariam
    The human body, that marvelous chamber of secrets, reveals myriads of information about its owner’s physical, psychological, emotional and cognitive state. In the last century, scientists in the medical field achieved huge leaps in identifying, collecting and analysing of signals generated inside the human brain and body.The advancement in the technology of sensing and collecting those physiological signals has finally matured enough; making the mysterious human body a more attainable source of information to regular non-trained users. Research in the field of Human Computer Interaction has always looked for new ways to interface between humans and machines.With the help of physiological sensing, a new channel of information originating inside the human body becomes available. The opportunities this new channel provides are limitless. In this thesis we take this opportunity to look at our own bodies as a source of information, to better understand ourselves, and others. In a world where partners and friends are in long-distance relationships, meeting rooms are distributed over cities, and working teams are remote, efficient communication mediated over a distance becomes crucial. We see our bodies as a direct interface for communication: our heartbeats reveal how excited we are, our brain reveals how focused we are, and our skin reveals how stressed we are. How can we use this information to create an implicit communication channel between people? Can we increase empathy, connectedness, and awareness, if we include the body as a source of information in our communication systems? What are the ethical and social implications of this type of novel sensing and sharing of information? These are some of the questions this thesis is concerned with. The field of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) has a long rich history. In this work, we extend on the means of mediating communication to include the body at the source, and the sink, of a communication system. Through a user-centred design process, we first start with a requirements gathering stage in which we investigate the expectations of users towards implicit physiological sensing and sharing of information. We build on top of existing CMC concepts to include bio-signals of the human body within communication.We chart our view of an extensive design space that includes implicit sensing opportunities and dimensions that consider new trends in communication including the distribution and remoteness of users. Through a set of research probes, ordered by one dimension of our extended design space, namely the number of senders and receivers, we explore how signals from the human body can be collected, visualized, and communicated. Starting with self-reflection as a form of communication, we look into how the revealing of information about one’s own body to oneself can enhance their understanding and interaction with systems in different contexts. Using electroencephalography signals from the frontal lobe of the brain, we build a system that aims to aid information workers in understanding how their attention varies during different tasks, and aids in scheduling and increased awareness. In a second research probe, we investigate the effect of revealing affective valence information collected through heart rate and electroencephalography to car drivers and its impact on driving performance. Looking at one-to-one personal communication, comprising the bigger part of our 21st century relationships, we develop two probes which use intimate information collected from the human body to enhance empathy, awareness and connectedness. We explore ways to visualize and communicate heart rate in online chat scenarios and how users deal with such an intimate yet ambiguous source of information. In another probe we introduce the idea of, not only implicitly sensing emotions as an input from one sender, but also using an actuating component at the output side of the communication channel. We explain and develop our concept of embodied emotion actuation using electroencephalography on one side and electrical muscle stimulation on the receiver’s side to enhance the connection between communicating partners. Communication in the large, with multiple senders and receivers who may be distributed or collocated over time and place, is the subject of our final set of research probes. Here we explored the area of audience sensing using physiological sensors to provide feedback to presenters or stakeholders. In two probes we investigated the use of electroencephalography to collect feedback from multiple audiences, in collocated, or distributed scenarios. In one probe, presenters can view real-time or post-hoc feedback to their presented material to evaluate and enhance it. In the second probe, visitors in a museum can implicitly rate their interest in exhibits which can be used by museum curators for better understanding of their audience. Finally, throughout our developed and evaluated research probes we reflect back on the design space presented in the beginning. We derive implications and recommendations for design as well as a conceptual architecture for physiologically augmented communication. We dedicate a discussion to the ethical and social implications of implicit physiological communication derived through our field and lab evaluations of our developed probes.We conclude with a vision of computer mediated communication for the next 20 years and discuss opportunities of future work.
  • Dissertation
    Supporting users in password authentication with persuasive design
    (2018) Seitz, Tobias
    Activities like text-editing, watching movies, or managing personal finances are all accomplished with web-based solutions nowadays. The providers need to ensure security and privacy of user data. To that end, passwords are still the most common authentication method on the web. They are inexpensive and easy to implement. Users are largely accustomed to this kind of authentication but passwords represent a considerable nuisance, because they are tedious to create, remember, and maintain. In many cases, usability issues turn into security problems, because users try to work around the challenges and create easily predictable credentials. Often, they reuse their passwords for many purposes, which aggravates the risk of identity theft. There have been numerous attempts to remove the root of the problem and replace passwords, e.g., through biometrics. However, no other authentication strategy can fully replace them, so passwords will probably stay a go-to authentication method for the foreseeable future. Researchers and practitioners have thus aimed to improve users' situation in various ways. There are two main lines of research on helping users create both usable and secure passwords. On the one hand, password policies have a notable impact on password practices, because they enforce certain characteristics. However, enforcement reduces users' autonomy and often causes frustration if the requirements are poorly communicated or overly complex. On the other hand, user-centered designs have been proposed: Assistance and persuasion are typically more user-friendly but their influence is often limited. In this thesis, we explore potential reasons for the inefficacy of certain persuasion strategies. From the gained knowledge, we derive novel persuasive design elements to support users in password authentication. The exploration of contextual factors in password practices is based on four projects that reveal both psychological aspects and real-world constraints. Here, we investigate how mental models of password strength and password managers can provide important pointers towards the design of persuasive interventions. Moreover, the associations between personality traits and password practices are evaluated in three user studies. A meticulous audit of real-world password policies shows the constraints for selection and reuse practices. Based on the review of context factors, we then extend the design space of persuasive password support with three projects. We first depict the explicit and implicit user needs in password support. Second, we craft and evaluate a choice architecture that illustrates how a phenomenon from marketing psychology can provide new insights into the design of nudging strategies. Third, we tried to empower users to create memorable passwords with emojis. The results show the challenges and potentials of emoji-passwords on different platforms. Finally, the thesis presents a framework for the persuasive design of password support. It aims to structure the required activities during the entire process. This enables researchers and practitioners to craft novel systems that go beyond traditional paradigms, which is illustrated by a design exercise.
  • Dissertation
    Konzepte und Guidelines für Applikationen in Cinematic Virtual Reality
    (2020) Rothe, Sylvia
    Die meisten Menschen, die zum ersten Mal einen omnidirektionalen Film über ein Head-Mounted Display (HMD) sehen, sind fasziniert von der neuen Erlebniswelt. Das Gefühl, an einem anderen Ort zu sein, weit weg von der Realität, beeindruckt und lässt sie in eine andere Welt eintauchen. Die über Jahrzehnte entwickelte Filmsprache lässt sich nicht ohne Weiteres auf dieses neue Medium - Cinematic Virtual Reality (CVR) - übertragen. Der Betrachter kann die Blickrichtung und damit den sichtbaren Ausschnitt des Bildes frei wählen, und es ist deshalb nicht immer möglich, dem Zuschauer zu zeigen, was für die Geschichte wichtig ist. Herkömmliche Methoden für die Lenkung der Aufmerksamkeit - wie Nahaufnahmen oder Zooms - sind nicht ohne Weiteres verwendbar, andere – wie Bewegung und Farben – benötigen eine Evaluation und Anpassung. Um neue Konzepte und Methoden für CVR zu finden, sind neben den Forschungsergebnissen aus dem Filmbereich auch die anderer Forschungsgebiete, wie Virtual und Augmented Reality (VR und AR), relevant. Um geeignete Techniken der Aufmerksamkeitslenkung in CVR zu ergründen, werden in dieser Arbeit bekannte Methoden aus Film, VR und AR analysiert und eine einheitliche Taxonomie präsentiert. Dadurch ist es möglich, die verschiedenen Aspekte detaillierter zu untersuchen. Auch die Positionierung der Kamera kann nicht ohne Weiteres vom traditionellen Film auf CVR übertragen werden. Der Zuschauer nimmt bei der Betrachtung einer CVR-Anwendung in der virtuellen Welt die Position der Kamera ein. Dies kann zu Problemen führen, wenn die Kamerahöhe nicht seiner eigenen Körpergröße entspricht. Außerdem ist eine Auflösung einer Szene durch verschiedene Einstellungsgrößen nicht ohne Weiteres möglich, da dies für den Zuschauer ein Umherspringen in der virtuellen Welt bedeuten würde. In dieser Arbeit werden die Auswirkungen verschiedener Kamerapositionen auf den Zuschauer untersucht und Guidelines zur Kamerapositionierung vorgestellt. Die dazugewonnene Raumkomponente bietet neue Möglichkeiten. Schnitte müssen nicht unbedingt von der verstrichenen Zeit abhängen, sondern können auch auf der Blickrichtung des Betrachters basieren. In Übereinstimmung mit dem Begriff Timeline führen wir das Konzept der Spaceline für diese Methode der Story-Konstruktion ein. Während die Schnitte auf der Timeline vom Filmemacher festgelegt werden, bestimmt der Betrachter die Spaceline - innerhalb eines vom Filmemacher festgelegten Konstrukts. Durch diese individuelle Zuschauerführung ist es möglich, dass jeder seine eigene Geschichte in seinem eigenen Tempo und mit seinen eigenen Prioritäten entdeckt. Das Spaceline-Konzept bietet neue Interaktionsmöglichkeiten, die durch verschiedene Selektionstechniken umgesetzt werden können. Um Techniken zu finden, die für CVR geeignet sind, werden in dieser Arbeit blick- und kopfbasierte Ansätze untersucht. Auch wenn deren Wirksamkeit stark von den gewählten Parametern und physiologischen Faktoren abhängen, konnten wertvolle Erkenntnisse gewonnen werden, die in einen Design-Space für CVR-Konstrukte einfließen. Dieser Design-Space ermöglicht es beim Entwerfen einer CVR-Anwendung, die Attribute zu finden, die für die Anwendung am besten geeignet sind. Aber nicht nur die Entwicklung von CVR-Anwendungen stellt neue Herausforderungen. Durch das HMD ist ein Zuschauer von der restlichen Welt isoliert, und es bedarf neuer Methoden, um CVR als soziale Erfahrung erlebbar zu machen. Einige davon werden in dieser Arbeit vorgestellt und analysiert. Aus den gewonnenen Erfahrungen werden Empfehlungen für einen CVR-Movie-Player abgeleitet. Um die vorgestellten Konzepte und Guidelines zu entwickeln, wurden eine Reihe von Nutzerstudien durchgeführt, zum Teil mit Aufzeichnung der Kopf- und Blickrichtungen. Um diese Daten analysieren zu können, wurde ein Tool entwickelt, welches die Visualisierung der Daten auf dem Film ermöglicht. In dieser Arbeit werden Konzepte und Guidelines für verschiedene Felder in Cinematic Virtual Reality vorgestellt: Aufmerksamkeitslenkung, Kamerapositionierung, Montage, Zuschauererlebnis und Datenanalyse. Auf jedem dieser Gebiete konnten Erkenntnisse gewonnen werden, die auch für die andere Bereiche von Interesse sind. Oft hängen die Ergebnisse der einzelnen Fachgebiete zusammen und ergänzen sich gegenseitig. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, die verschiedenen Aspekte als Ganzes zu präsentieren.
  • Dissertation
    The usage of fully immersive head-mounted displays in social everyday contexts
    (2019) Mai, Christian
    Technology often evolves from decades of research in university and industrial laboratories and changes people's lives when it becomes available to the masses. In the interaction between technology and consumer, established designs in the laboratory environment must be adapted to the needs of everyday life. This paper deals with the challenges arising from the development of fully immersive Head Mounted Displays (HMD) in laboratories towards their application in everyday contexts. Research on virtual reality (VR) technologies spans over 50 years and covers a wide field of topics, e.g., technology, system design, user interfaces, user experience or human perception. Other disciplines such as psychology or the teleoperation of robots are examples for users of VR technology. The work in the previous examples was mainly carried out in laboratories or highly specialized environments. The main goal was to generate systems that are ideal for a single user to conduct a particular task in VR. The new emerging environments for the use of HMDs range from private homes to offices to convention halls. Even in public spaces such as public transport, cafés or parks, immersive experiences are possible. However, current VR systems are not yet designed for these environments. Previous work on problems in the everyday environment deals with challenges such as preventing the user from colliding with a physical object. However, current research does not take into account the new social context for an HMD user associated with these environments. Several people who have different roles are around the user in these contexts. In contrast to laboratory scenarios, the non-HMD user, for example, does not share the task with or is aware of the state of the HMD user in VR. This thesis contributes to the challenges introduced by the social context. For this purpose I offer solutions to overcome the visual separation of the HMD user. I also suggest methods for investigating and evaluating the use of HMDs suitable for everyday context. First, we present concepts and insights to overcome the challenges arising from an HMD covering the user's face. In the private context, e.g., living rooms, one of the main challenges is the need for an HMD user to take off the HMD to be able to communicate with others. Reasons for taking off the HMD are the visual exclusion of the surrounding world for HMD users and the HMD covering the users' face, hindering communication. Additionally, the Non-HMD users do not know about the virtual world the HMD user is acting in. Previous work suggests to visualize the bystanding Non-HMD user or its actions in VR to address such challenges. The biggest advantage of a fully immersive experience, however, is the full separation from the physical surrounding with the ultimate goal of being at another place. Therefore I argue not to integrate a non-HMD users directly into VR. I introduce the approach of using a shared surface that provides a common basis for information and interaction between a non-HMD and a HMD user. Such a surface can be utilized by using a smartphone. The same information is presented to the HMD in VR and the Non-HMD user on the shared surface in the same physical position, enabling joint interaction at the surface. By examining four feedback modalities, we provide design guidelines for touch interaction. The guidelines support interaction design with such a shared surface by an HMD user. Further, we explore the possibility to inform the Non-HMD user about the user's state during a mixed presence collaboration, e.g., if the HMD user is inattentive to the real world. For this purpose I use a frontal display attached to the HMD. In particular we explore the challenges of disturbed socialness and reduced collaboration quality, by presenting the users state on the front facing display. In summary, our concepts and studies explore the application of a shared surface to overcome challenges in a co-located mixed presence collaboration. Second, we look at the challenges of using HMDs in a public environment that have not yet been considered. The use of HMDs in these environments is becoming a reality due to the current development of HMDs, which contain all necessary hardware in one portable device. Related work, in particular, the work on public displays, already addresses the interaction with technology in public environments. The form factor of the HMD, the need to take an HMD onto the head and especially the visual and mental exclusion of the HMD user are new and not yet understood challenges in these environments. We propose a problem space for semi-public (e.g., conference rooms) and public environments (e.g., market places). With an explorative field study, we gain insight into the effects of the visual and physical separation of an HMD user from surrounding Non-HMD users. Further, we present a method that helps to design and evaluate the unsupervised usage of HMDs in public environments, the \emph{audience funnel flow model for HMDs}. Third, we look into methods that are suitable to monitor and evaluate HMD-based experiences in the everyday context. One core measure is the experience of being present in the virtual world, i.e., the feeling of ``being there''. Consumer-grade HMDs are already able to create highly immersive experiences, leading to a strong presence experience in VR. Hence we argue it is important to find and understand the remaining disturbances during the experience. Existing methods from the laboratory context are either not precise enough, e.g, questionnaires, to find these disturbances or cause high effort in their application and evaluation, e.g., physiological measures. In a literature review, we show that current research heavily relies on questionnaire-based approaches. I improve current qualitative approaches -- interviews, questionnaires -- to make the temporal variation of a VR experience assessable. I propose a drawing method that recognizes breaks in the presence experience. Also, it helps the user in reflecting an HMD-based experience and supports the communication between an interviewer and the HMD user. In the same paper, we propose a descriptive model that allows the objective description of the temporal variations of a presence experience from beginning to end. Further, I present and explore the concept of using electroencephalography to detect an HMD user's visual stress objectively. Objective detection supports the usage of HMDs in private and industrial contexts, as it ensures the health of the user. With my work, I would like to draw attention to the new challenges when using virtual reality technologies in everyday life. I hope that my concepts, methods and evaluation tools will serve research and development on the usage of HMDs. In particular, I would like to promote the use in the everyday social context and thereby create an enriching experience for all.
  • Dissertation
    Supporting users in understanding intelligent everyday systems
    (2019) Eiband, Malin
    Intelligent systems have permeated many areas of daily life like communication, search, decision-making, and navigation, and thus present an important meeting point of people and artificial intelligence in practice. These intelligent everyday systems are in focus of this thesis. Intelligent everyday systems exhibit the characteristics of so-called complex systems as defined in cognitive science: They serve ill-defined user goals, change dynamically over time, and comprise a large number of interrelated variables whose dependencies are not transparent to users. Due to this complexity, intelligent everyday systems can violate established usability guidelines of user interface design like transparency, controllability and easy error correction. This may introduce uncertainty to interaction that users have to overcome in order to reach a goal. I introduce a perspective from cognitive science, where users do so through knowledge. The work presented in this thesis aims at assisting users in gaining this knowledge, or supporting users in understanding intelligent everyday systems, for example, through explanation, control, correction or feedback. To this end, the work included in this thesis makes three main contributions: First, I present a method for eliciting user need for support and informing adequate solutions through practical user problems with intelligent everyday systems in daily interaction. In a first phase, the presented method uses passive data collection to extract user problems with intelligent everyday systems through a combination of automated and manual analyses. In the second phase, these problems are then enriched and validated through active data collection to derive solutions for support. In addition, I report on the application of this method to uncover user problems with four popular commercial intelligent everyday systems (Facebook, Netflix, Google Maps and Google Assistant). Second, I introduce a conceptual framework for categorising and differentiating prevailing notionsin the field of how users should be supported in understanding intelligent systems related to what users seek to know, how they acquire knowledge, and what kind of knowledge they acquire. The presented framework can be used to make these notions explicit and thus introduces an overarching structure that abstracts from the field’s fractured terminological landscape. It aims at helping other researchers become aware of existing approaches and locate and reflect on their own work. Third, I present a number of case studies and arguments as an exploration of how users can be supported in the face of real-world challenges and trade-offs. My research reflects two possible perspectives to approach this question, a normative and a pragmatic one. As part of a critical reflection on the normative perspective, the work shows that explanations without information can similarly foster user trust in a system compared to real explanations, and discusses how user support can be exploited to deceive users. From the pragmatic perspective emerges a stage-based participatory design process that incorporates different stakeholder needs and a study assessing how support can be interwoven with users’ primary tasks. In summary, this thesis adopts a perspective on interaction with intelligent everyday systems, where understanding is a fundamental process towards reaching a user-set goal. On this basis, I introduce a research agenda for future work that incorporates the presented contributions and also includes challenges beyond the scope of this work, such as considering user empowerment. I hope that this agenda, along with the presented method, framework and design exploration, will help future work to shape interaction with intelligent everyday systems in a way that allows people to use them better, and to better ends and outcomes.
  • Dissertation
    Interactive advertising displays: audience behavior around interactive advertising columns, life-size screens and banner displays
    (2018) Beyer, Gilbert
    Interactive public displays are the latest development in the field of out-of-home advertising. Throughout history characteristic shapes for billboards evolved such as flat rectangular displays, long displays or cylindrical advertising columns. This work presents novel interactive display designs that are based on these historical role models and allow passers-by to interact with them in a natural, touchless manner. It further pursues a vision where interactive public displays become more active themselves and actively influence passer-by behavior in order to increase their effectiveness, better attract attention and improve public interaction in front of them. First, to overcome the challenge that passers-by often do not expect public displays to be interactive and thus pay no attention to them, this work presents a solution called unaware initial interaction that surprises passers-by and communicates interactivity by giving visual feedback to their initial movements. To be effective, the visual feedback has to be designed considering the specific display shapes, their requirements to contents and the typical approaching trajectories. Second, to overcome the challenge that larger groups of passers-by often crowd together in front of wide public displays or do not take optimal positions for interaction, this work presents a solution to subtly and actively guide users by dynamic and interactive visual cues on the screen in order to better distribute them. To explore these concepts and following an initial analysis of the out-of-home domain and of typical display qualities, interactive counterparts to the classical display shapes are designed such as interactive advertising columns, long banner displays and life-size screens. Then interactive contents and visual feedbacks are designed which implement the presented interactivity concepts, and audience behavior around them is analyzed in several long-term field studies in public space. Finally the observed passer-by and user behavior and the effectiveness of the display and content designs are discussed and takeaways given that are useful for practitioners and researchers in the field of public interaction with out-of-home displays.
  • Dissertation
    Interactive tools for reproducible science: understanding, supporting, and motivating reproducible science practices
    (2020) Feger, Sebastian
    Reproducibility should be a cornerstone of science. It plays an essential role in research validation and reuse. In recent years, the scientific community and the general public became increasingly aware of the reproducibility crisis, i.e. the wide-spread inability of researchers to reproduce published work, including their own. The reproducibility crisis has been identified in most branches of data-driven science. The effort required to document, clean, preserve, and share experimental resources has been described as one of the core contributors to this irreproducibility challenge. Documentation, preservation, and sharing are key reproducible research practices that are of little perceived value for scientists, as they fall outside the traditional academic reputation economy that is focused on novelty-driven scientific contributions. Scientific research is increasingly focused on the creation, observation, processing, and analysis of large data volumes. On one hand, this transition towards computational and data-intensive science poses new challenges for research reproducibility and reuse. On the other hand, increased availability and advances in computation and web technologies offer new opportunities to address the reproducibility crisis. A prominent example is the World Wide Web (WWW), which was developed in response to researchers’ needs to quickly share research data and findings with the scientific community. The WWW was invented at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). CERN is a key laboratory in High Energy Physics (HEP), one of the most data-intensive scientific domains. This thesis reports on research connected in the context of CAP, a Research Data Management (RDM) service tailored to CERN's major experiments. We use this scientific environment to study the role and requirements of interactive tools in facilitating reproducible research. In this thesis, we build a wider understanding of researchers' interactions with tools that support research documentation, preservation, and sharing. From an HCI perspective the following aspects are fundamental: (1) Characterize and map requirements and practices around research preservation and reuse. (2) Understand the wider role and impact of RDM tools in scientific workflows. (3) Design tools and interactions that promote, motivate, and acknowledge reproducible research practices. Research reported in this thesis represents the first systematic application of HCI methods in the study and design of interactive tools for reproducible science. We have built an empirical understanding of reproducible research practices and the role of supportive tools through research in HEP and across a variety of scientific fields. We designed prototypes and implemented services that aim to create rewarding and motivating interactions. We conducted mixed-method evaluations to assess the UX of the designs, in particular related to usefulness, suitability, and persuasiveness. We report on four empirical studies in which 42 researchers and data managers participated. In the first interview study, we asked HEP data analysts about RDM practices and invited them to explore and discuss CAP. Our findings show that tailored preservation services allow for introducing and promoting meaningful rewards and incentives that benefit contributors in their research work. Here, we introduce the term secondary usage forms of RDM tools. While not part of the core mission of the tools, secondary usage forms motivate contributions through meaningful rewards. We extended this research through a cross-domain interview study with data analysts and data stewards from a diverse set of scientific fields. Based on the findings of this cross-domain study, we contribute a Stage-Based Model of Personal RDM Commitment Evolution that explains how and why scientists commit to open and reproducible science. To address the motivation challenge, we explored if and how gamification can motivate contributions and promote reproducible research practices. To this end, we designed two prototypes of a gamified preservation service that was inspired by CAP. Each gamification prototype makes use of different underlying mechanisms. HEP researchers found both implementations valuable, enjoyable, suitable, and persuasive. The gamification layer improves visibility of scientists and research work and facilitates content navigation and discovery. Based on these findings, we implemented six tailored science badges in CAP in our second gamification study. The badges promote and reward high-quality documentation and special uses of preserved research. Findings from our evaluation with HEP researchers show that tailored science badges enable novel forms of research repository navigation and content discovery that benefit users and contributors. We discuss how the use of tailored science badges as an incentivizing element paves new ways for interaction with research repositories. Finally, we describe the role of HCI in supporting reproducible research practices. We stress that tailored RDM tools can improve content navigation and discovery, which is key in the design of secondary usage forms. Moreover, we argue that incentivizing elements like gamification may not only motivate contributions, but further promote secondary uses and enable new forms of interaction with preserved research. Based on our empirical research, we describe the roles of both HCI scholars and practitioners in building interactive tools for reproducible science. Finally, we outline our vision to transform computational and data-driven research preservation through ubiquitous preservation strategies that integrate into research workflows and make use of automated knowledge recording. In conclusion, this thesis advocates the unique role of HCI in supporting, motivating, and transforming reproducible research practices through the design of tools that enable effective RDM. We present practices around research preservation and reuse in HEP and beyond. Our research paves new ways for interaction with RDM tools that support and motivate reproducible science.
  • Dissertation
    User experience in cross-cultural contexts
    (2019) Lachner, Florian
    This dissertation discusses how interdisciplinary UX teams can consider culturally sensitive design elements during the UX design process. It contributes a state-of-the-art meta review on UX evaluation methods, two software tool artifacts for cross-functional UX teams, and empirical insights in the differing usage behaviors of a website plug-in of French, German and Italian users, website design preferences of Vietnamese and German users, as well as learnings from a field trip that focused on studying privacy and personalization in Mumbai, India. Finally, based on these empirical insights, this work introduces the concept culturally sensitive design that goes beyond traditional cross-cultural design considerations in HCI that do not compare different approaches to consider culturally sensitive product aspects in user research.