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  • Konferenzbeitrag
    The role of virtual servants in e-Interaction
    (Pragmatic web – Proceedings of the first international conference on the pragmatic web, 2006, 2006) Lind, Mikael; Salomonson, Nicklas; Schoop, Mareike; Moor, Aldo de; Dietz, Jan
    Internet-based interfaces between organisations and their buyers are becoming increasingly common. Lately virtual servants have been identified as agents to support the customer – supplier interaction. In this paper we investigate the existence of one such virtual servant – Anna at – in a business interaction situation. Anna is regarded as an example of a typical virtual servant of today. Based on pragmatic theories for business interaction we investigate the role of this virtual servant. The conclusion from this study shows that this virtual servant does support the potential / particular buyer in navigating on the company's web-site rather than the realisation of a purchase.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Trading semantically enhanced digital products in electronic markets
    (Pragmatic web – Proceedings of the first international conference on the pragmatic web, 2006, 2006) Maass, Wolfgang; Behrendt, Wernher; Schoop, Mareike; Moor, Aldo de; Dietz, Jan
    Digital products constitute a growing class of economic goods that are increasingly traded via digital networks. In distributed digital networks, it is required that digital products adapt to heterogeneous requirements of electronic markets and subsequent usage environments. Adaptation depends on various kinds of information types that characterise a digital product. In this article we will present a self-describing container model for digital products, called KCO, that integrates characteristic semantic information types (facets) derived from an analysis of electronic market structures. Semantic information supports usage of digital products throughout the whole product life-cycle. During purchase decision phases, facets offer semantically annotated data on the quality and applicability of a digital product while in usage contexts, facets provide data that can be used by content management systems for content processing tasks, such as access control, routing, syndication and aggregration. KCOs allow exchanges between existing heterogeneous application environments on the basis of an open Knowledge Content Transfer Protocol (KCTP) that is part of a general architecture (Knowledge Content Carrier Architecture, KCCA). All architectural elements have been used in three application environments.1
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    A policy framework for collaborative web service customization
    (Pragmatic web – Proceedings of the first international conference on the pragmatic web, 2006, 2006) Liang, Haiqi; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Zhongbo; Schoop, Mareike; Moor, Aldo de; Dietz, Jan
    A web service usually serves many consumers, with each consumer having its specific functional or nonfunctional requirements. The web service should be customizable to meet those requirements, as is especially apparent for complex web services with large granularity such as Softwareas-Service (SaS). This paper proposes an approach to facilitating web service customization in the programatical way through the collaboration between service provider and consumer. A specification for declaring web service customization policy is defined based on the WS-Policy framework, through which service provider can declare the service's customization capabilities. A service consumer can make customization requests within the scope defined by the customization policies. The customization requests are raised in structuralized customization directives. A web service consumption process and a supporting framework accompanied with customization policy are introduced accordingly. Finally, a case study is present.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    A conceptual architecture for pragmatic web services
    (Pragmatic web – Proceedings of the first international conference on the pragmatic web, 2006, 2006) Weigand, Hans; Heuvel, Willem-Jan van den; Schoop, Mareike; Moor, Aldo de; Dietz, Jan
    In the current literature on service-oriented computing, the relationship between services and web-services is not always clear. Much research, notably in the area of service representation, discovery and composition, claims to address services whereas they actually apply to web-services. In this paper, we use insights from Language/Action Perspective and from value modeling to define services at an abstract (business) level. On that basis, we explore a pragmatic approach to service discovery, the cornerstone of the Service Oriented Architecture, and show how it differs from web service discovery. In the course of the discussion, some differences between a Semantic Web approach and a Pragmatic Web approach become apparant.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Can the pragmatic web assist search engine optimisation?
    (Pragmatic web – Proceedings of the first international conference on the pragmatic web, 2006, 2006) Razafimbelo, Tiana; Polovina, Simon; Hill, Richard; Schoop, Mareike; Moor, Aldo de; Dietz, Jan
    Discovering information on the Web relies on the publishers of that information to describe it in a meaningful way, often at the syntactical level. Despite ongoing efforts to improve Web page description, search retrieval is more time consuming than it should be. Essentially this arises because search engines lack the capacity to identify the purpose of the search. The goal of this paper is to identify the extent to which this issue can be addressed and how the Pragmatic Web may assist in this endeavour. The paper uses Stamper's Semiotic Ladder to distinguish between those issues that are truly semantic, pragmatic or even social, versus those which are syntactic. This enables the core issues to be discovered, thereby distinguishing the areas that the Pragmatic Web community can focus upon.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Active knowledge systems for the pragmatic web
    (Pragmatic web – Proceedings of the first international conference on the pragmatic web, 2006, 2006) Delugach, Harry; Schoop, Mareike; Moor, Aldo de; Dietz, Jan
    As the limitations of the Semantic Web become apparent, the next step – creating the Pragmatic Web – requires active knowledge systems, that have the capability to support practical and complex human interaction and communication. A key ingredient in this effort is a system's ability to respond to events in the real world. The Pragmatic Web would therefore not be merely a knowledge interchange medium; it would actively support humans using that knowledge to accomplish tasks. The main goal of this paper is to show how an active knowledge system can support formal models of human pragmatic communication, combining earlier work on active knowledge systems, formal models of communication acts and formal models of organizational actors. We carry through an extended example illustrating some of these ideas.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    A devolved ontology model for the pragmatic web
    (Pragmatic web – Proceedings of the first international conference on the pragmatic web, 2006, 2006) Stalker, Ian Duncan; Mehandjiev, Nikolay; Schoop, Mareike; Moor, Aldo de; Dietz, Jan
    Devolved ontology is an approach to ontology modelling and (co-) evolution which was developed in connection with agile partnerships. Inviting parallels between agile partnerships and the context of the Pragmatic Web suggest that this has potential value in realising the vision of the Pragmatic Web [SMD06]. This is especially clear in their respective uses of ontologies and in particular the demands made of supporting structures. We motivate and introduce the devolved ontology model and show how to use this to promote semantic alignment and thereby support communication.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Sensemaking on the pragmatic web: A hypermedia discourse perspective
    (Pragmatic web – Proceedings of the first international conference on the pragmatic web, 2006, 2006) Shu, Simon J. Buckingham; Schoop, Mareike; Moor, Aldo de; Dietz, Jan
    The complexity of the dilemmas we face on an organizational, societal and global scale forces us into sensemaking activity. We need tools for expressing and contesting perspectives flexible enough for real time use in meetings, structured enough to help manage longer term memory, and powerful enough to filter the complexity of extended deliberation and debate on an organizational or global scale. This has been the motivation for a programme of basic and applied action research into Hypermedia Discourse, which draws on research in hypertext, information visualization, argumentation, modelling, and meeting facilitation. This paper proposes that this strand of work shares a key principle behind the Pragmatic Web concept, namely, the need to take seriously diverse perspectives and the processes of meaning negotiation. Moreover, it is argued that the hypermedia discourse tools described instantiate this principle in practical tools which permit end-user control over modelling approaches in the absence of consensus.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Characteristics of public E-services: Investigating the E-diamond model
    (Pragmatic web – Proceedings of the first international conference on the pragmatic web, 2006, 2006) Goldkuhl, Göran; Persson, Anders; Schoop, Mareike; Moor, Aldo de; Dietz, Jan
    The issue of the paper is how to characterize public e-services mediated through the web. One common kind of characterization is made through stage models (e-ladders). Such models are frequently used for policy-planning, evaluation and bench-marking of public e-services. E-ladder models have been criticized and as an alternative the e-diamond model has been formulated, which consists of twelve categories in three polarities (informative vs performative; general vs individualized; separate vs coordinated). The differences between e-ladder and e-diamond models are described in the paper. Empirical investigations of some public e-services based on the e-diamond model are pursued. A theoretical analysis of the e-diamond model based on the language-action perspective is performed. This follows the view that public e-services are seen as government – citizen communication. The empirical and theoretical investigations give further support to the e-diamond model.
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