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Environmental Informatics 2009

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  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Tools for Earthquake Impact Estimations in Near Real Time
    (Environmental Informatics and Industrial Environmental Protection: Concepts, Methods and Tools, 2009) Frolova, Nina
    The paper addresses the methodological and practical issues of near real-time loss assessment following strong earthquakes at global scale. The reliability of loss estimations is analyzed for three global tools’ applications. The need for coordinated efforts and research at international level for compiling and maintaining of different data bases used in the tools, including impact data bases, is stressed if one wants to increase the reliability of loss estimation in “emergency” mode.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Climate Change Adaptation: The Role of ICT in Facilitating the Application of Robust and Relevant Science
    (Environmental Informatics and Industrial Environmental Protection: Concepts, Methods and Tools, 2009) Stainforth; Alan, David
    A wide variety of available information concerning the climate change impact on water resources is available in communication networks and the Internet. Researches of the climate change are very complicated since many factors are indefinite or unknown. Global change and its reasons are closely associated with regional characteristics. The evaluation of the past and future changes of Lithuanian rivers’ runoff and their consistent patterns during the XXI century was done using the accumulative database of meteorological and hydrological observation, ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate circulation models and A1B, A2 and B1 emission scenarios, statistical methods and hydrological modelling (HBV software). Changes of climate elements (temperature and precipitation) directly influence conditions of river runoff formation. The average annual temperature increased about 0.9 oC during the last decades in Lithuania. The most significant temperature increase was in the winter and spring seasons. The cycle change has been estimated in the long time period series of precipitation. Average durations of wet and dry periods are 14 and 13 years accordingly. Precipitation of the winter season increases only from 1961 till now in all territory of Lithuania. The cyclic wateriness change is characteristic of the river annual runoff. The increase of winter season runoff, decrease of spring season runoff and maximum discharges of the spring floods have been observed in the last decades. In the forecasted period (2010-2100) average annual temperature will increase to 4.6 oC. Significant tendencies are not estimated in the precipitation change. The average annual runoff of the biggest Lithuanian river Nemunas is forecasted to decrease to 14% during the century. Rapid flow of such kind of climate-change information from scientists to water managers would be useful and needful for solving many problems. Many sectors (water supply, agriculture, energy, industry, human health, transportation, infrastructure, tourism) are dependent on water resources and their possible variability due to climate change. Water managers, politicians and lower orders could get full-scale information concerning to impact of climate change on freshwater resources. New Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable the users to search out a wide variety of available information. Unfortunately, the found papers, opinions and hypotheses could be not reliable and confidence. There is no official web-site concerning the climate change impact on the environment in Lithuania. The rubric “Climate Change” is in the web-site of Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania but the content of this rubric is related to the government activity in this field. The Environmental Protection Agency of Lithuania has a wide web-site regarding monitoring data of environment. There is no special rubric on climate change except some “references” to the web-sites of other organizations. In my point of view the official web-sites could be expanded with the wide and confident information from scientific community (papers, reports, projects et al.) concerning the climate change impact on environment.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    e-Participation System on Climate Change in the Basque Autonomous Community: the Stop CO2 Euskadi Initiative
    (Environmental Informatics and Industrial Environmental Protection: Concepts, Methods and Tools, 2009) Lanborena, Jaione; Barquín, Marian
    Basque Country approved a plan to fight against climate change in 2007. This plan proposes an objective to reduce Basque contribution to climate change and includes specific action, from different stakeholders (citizens, companies, administration). This challenge for reducing greenhouse gases emissions in the context of climate change is the main argument for the use of participatory systems. Collaborative work based in a transparent and effective communication process could be very useful and even necessary for an effective solution. In this context, www.stopco2euskadi.net is a regional initiative of the Basque Office on Climate Change, based on a e-participation system, that promotes and brings together the actions carried out by all the agents of the Basque Country, in order to reduce greenhouse gases causing climate change in the 2009-2012 period.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    SMART cities and protecting THE climate: URBAN SUSTAINABILITY AND governance
    (Environmental Informatics and Industrial Environmental Protection: Concepts, Methods and Tools, 2009) Paskaleva, Krassimira; Curwell, Steve
    Cities are a central part of local and global sustainability and environmental protection; a solution for climate change. As centers of innovation they can advance clean energy systems, sustainable transportation and waste management to reduce greenhouse gases. With access to up to date climate science, they can also work with scientists and experts to assess impacts and vulnerability, and with local stakeholders to design and implement effective adaptation strategies to respond to unavoidable impacts of climate change. This however, requires a dramatic shift from government to governance on multiple scales – from the local neighborhood, across urban areas and sectors and at the metropolitan level – as part of the strategic urban sustainability agenda. Building on the results of the Intelcity Roadmap Project, which built visions and scenarios of the intelligent European cities in 2030, the current paper presents the Environment City Scenario to show how current environmental and social problems can be gradually addressed, resolved or ameliorated with the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Specifically, the important role of the ICTs is demonstrated through their integration into society in ways that are both enabling and contributing to the quality of life, with climate change being a key variable. Recent studies e-governance in Europe have found that ICTs can be a powerful tool for building the collaborative digital environment that enhances the intelligence capacity of localities that helps them become a ‘smart city’, one that takes advantages of the opportunities offered by ICTs in increasing local sustainability and competitiveness an approach which implies integrated urban development based on multi-actor, multi-sector, and multi-level governance. The current paper makes a step further and discusses how cities can protect the climate using governance approaches and ICTs in the context of sustainable urban development. The latter offer tremendous opportunities for structural shifts in society, replacing commuting with tele-work, shopping with eCommerce, air travel with teleconference, enabling digital transmission of many goods to help optimize resource use (energy, materials, space, etc.) and foster a high-tech, knowledge-based economy that is both cleaner and greener. ICTs have the potential to foster much more collaborative working and integration between stakeholders, thus boost governance. The possible democratization of the urban development process, in context of governance, is seen to offer enormous potential in terms of seeking a much more sustainable way of life that leads to reducing climate pollution. Based on these premises, the paper attempts to define the key challenges facing our cities and the strategic pathways to an integrated process of urban sustainable development through governance. Finally, the key research strategies towards the intelligent use of ICTs to reorganize the city for more effective eforms of governance that can ensure climate protection in European cities are outlined; this being done against strategic European ICTs challenges for mobility, environmental sustainability and energy efficiency aiming increased awareness for climate change impacts and the importance for sustaining urban quality of life.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Marine climate change and environmental indicators from the Marine Core Service
    (Environmental Informatics and Industrial Environmental Protection: Concepts, Methods and Tools, 2009) Coppini, Giovanni; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Pinardi, Nadia; Fratianni, Claudia; Tonani, Marina; Adani, Mario; Oddo, Paolo; Dobricic, Srdjan; Marullo, Salvatore; Loewe, Peter; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Volpe, Gianluca
    In the framework of the Mediterranean Operational Oceanography Network (MOON, http://www.moonoceanforecasting.eu) The Mediterranean Forecasting System (Pinardi et al., 2003) has started the design and development of services that include the routine production of environmental and climate indicators. A process of identifying user requirements has been started in collaboration with European Environment Agency and the indicators definition and implementation aim to take user requirements into account. The indicators are extensively used by EEA (EEA web page on indicators: http://themes.eea.europa.eu/indicators/). INGV has carried out an analysis on the possible improvements of existing indicators in use by EEA and on the development of new indicators based on Marine Core Services (MCS) products. The list of indicators includes: Temperature, Chlorophyll-a (from ocean colour), Ocean Currents and Transport, Salinity, Transparency, Sea Level, Sea Ice and Density. A critical analysis has been carried out to identify the relevance of the above-mentioned indicators for EU policies, their spatial and temporal coverage, their accuracy and their availability (Coppini et al., 2008). INGV in collaboration with CNR-ISAC are directly involved on the development of the indicators in the Mediterranean region and European Seas region the Temperature and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) products are the most suitable for an indicator development test phase. In particular the OO Chl-a product, deduced from satellite data, is able to contribute to the further development of the EEA Chl-a indicator on eutrohpication that is based on in-situ measurements (CSI023). For this indicator a development phase has been undertaken in 2008 and 2009 within the European Topic Center for Water (ETC-W) for EEA. The temperature indicators, developed with the support of MyOcean and Operational Oceanography community, consist of long time series (1870-Today) of SST anomaly able to describe ocean temperature increase due to climate change in the European Seas and on SST trends map of the last 25 years for the European Seas. These last two indicators have been included in the last 2008 EEA report on Impacts of Climate change in the European Seas (http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/eea_report_2008_4). Moreover MFS re-analysis have been produced for the Mediterranean Sea and it consists of daily output of MFS-OPA hydrodinamic model (1/16 of degree horizontal resolution) that assimilates all available in situ and satellite observation for 1985 to 2007. This reanalysis product is used to detect temperature anomalies over the last 20 years in the coastal zone that could be related with environmental stresses. In addition to that we have also identified a Density indicator that appears relevant for the ecosystem health assessment in the coastal waters.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Analysis and Use of Information and Communication Tools in Economics of Climate Change
    (Environmental Informatics and Industrial Environmental Protection: Concepts, Methods and Tools, 2009) Chiabai, Aline
    The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the context of climate change is of great importance in the scientific community, but can also play an important role in the policy context. On the one hand, the results achievable for mitigation and adaptation are influencing the policy arena, and on the other hand these instruments represent an opportunity for decision-makers of applying innovative forms of public administration based on stakeholder’s involvement, which can reduce the existing gap between policy-makers and citizens (Oates, 2003). The paper provides an analysis of the main ICT tools and methods used in climate change economics by means of a questionnaire-based survey and focus groups discussion with specific experts in this context. The issues addressed are related with the use and relevance of ICT in the different research area of climate change, the perceived usefulness of these tools, and their importance in the scientific, economic and policy contexts. The main problems and limitations of ICT are investigated, together with the potentiality they can play in future research.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Monitoring and Environmental Information Sharing Regarding Climate Change
    (Environmental Informatics and Industrial Environmental Protection: Concepts, Methods and Tools, 2009) Charvat, Karel; Vohnout, Premysl; Kafka, Stepan; Cepicky, Jachym; Jezek, Jan; Vlk, Martin; Horak, Petr
    Natural and manmade disasters pose considerable challenges to sustainable development in Europe today. The risks vary among regions in the EU as well as among Member States, and Member States are thus put in different "risk positions". Disastersin particular floodsare increasingly having trans-boundary impacts. Transboundary issues make a common approach essential. This paper describe how innovative ICT solutions and communication practices play a potentially important role in alleviating the impacts of climate change. Our focus is on collaborative ICT platforms, including less explored areas of Web 2.0 and sensors network, and their integration into existing environmental monitoring systems and practices. This paper describes technologies, based on implementing rules for INSPIRE and UN SDI and OGC standards. Described are three basic models: use free publish free, outsource your data services, use your own solution.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Environmental information systems for recycling networks – a case study of the eco-industrial cluster Mödling
    (Environmental Informatics and Industrial Environmental Protection: Concepts, Methods and Tools, 2009) Perl-Vorbach, Elke
    The collection, managing and communication of environmental information are nowadays seen as an essential prerequisite for sustainable development. However, ways of generating and exchanging environmental information differ within and between companies. Moreover, the use of highly sophisticated environmental information systems can still be seen at in its infancy. The aim of this chapter is thus to investigate the application of environmental information systems especially for recycling activities. An empirical analysis of those barriers and obstacles which inhibit the implementation of environmental information systems is thus carried out. Furthermore, basic conditions for the interorganisational exchange of environmental information are investigated. Beside this empirical investigation the eco-industrial cluster Mödling will be analyzed as a case study. Within this company network, the potential for recycling activities for various waste streams such as plastics and construction waste is obvious. However, regarding informational aspects, the awareness of the usefulness of environmental information systems for the companies is still lacking. Thus, practical implication of such systems is still in its early stages.
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    Transfer of a theoretical model of industrial location to real world
    (Environmental Informatics and Industrial Environmental Protection: Concepts, Methods and Tools, 2009) Fernández, Inmaculada; del Carmen Ruiz, Maria
  • Konferenzbeitrag
    The role of ICT in industrial ecology projects – The French perspective
    (Environmental Informatics and Industrial Environmental Protection: Concepts, Methods and Tools, 2009) Brullot, Sabrina
    Many programs aiming at implementing industrial symbiosis have been developed all over the world. However, only few by-products exchanges became operational. Applications that aim at gathering and sharing material and energy flows are more often potential than effective (Gibbs and Deutz, 2007) and this is especially true in France where industrial ecology implementations are quite few. According to the question of the role of ICT in industrial ecology, this paper contains three parts. At first, we will propose an overview of industrial ecology in France from several points of view: when and how did the concept first appear? What about the research and the training centres? Who are the operational actors or experts? And finally what are the main projects? Secondly, we will present a French program called COMETHE and aiming at developing methodological and assessment tool integrated into a global decision-making system. And finally, we will conclude with a reflexion about the role of ICT in industrial ecology from the French point of view, introducing a future project that will take an interest in this question.